Physics DVDs

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Item Code: FI-D064

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 #34288 Electric Power on the Move
 #34428 Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Earth's Heat
 #1072 The Determination of the Velocity of Light
 #1073 The Determination of the Velocity of Radio Waves
 #1074 The Determination of the Newtonian Constant of Gravitation
 #1075 pV Isotherms of CO2: 1
 #1076 pV Isotherms of CO2: 2
 #1077 Electron Diffraction
 #1078 Millikan's Oil-Drop Experiment
 #1079 The Rutherford Scattering of Alpha Particles
 #1080 Experiments on the Doppler Effect
 #1081 Ionization and Excitation Potential
 #1082 The Determination of Boltzmann's Constant
 #1083 The Determination of a Radioactive Half-Life
 #1084 Cp/Cv for Helium, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide
 #1085 The Effect of Pressure on the Thermal Conductivity of a Gas
 #1963 Celestial Mechanics: The Distance to the Moon
 #34097 Physics: Forces at Work
 #34098 Physics: Properties of Light
 #35216 The Franklin Institute: Wonderland of Science
 #9134 Force(+$10)
 #9135 Mass(+$10)
 #9136 Acceleration(+$10)
 #14430 Newton's Laws of Motion(+$10)
 #33880 The Science of Fuels and Gases(+$20)
 #29354 Conservation and Energy Alternatives: Powering the Future(+$20)
 #5622 Speed(+$20)
 #10278 Numbers, Units, Scalars, and Vectors(+$20)
 #10279 One-Dimensional Kinematics(+$20)
 #10280 Projectile Motion(+$20)
 #10281 Circular and Rotational Motion(+$20)
 #10282 Linear Momentum and Newton's Laws of Motion(+$20)
 #10283 Friction, Work, and Energy(+$20)
 #10284 Gravitation(+$20)
 #10285 Harmonic Motion and Waves(+$20)
 #10286 Heat(+$20)
 #10287 Thermodynamics(+$20)
 #35595 Magnetic Force(+$20)
 #10699 Mechanical, Thermal, and Light Energy(+$30)
 #10700 Chemical, Electrical, and Nuclear Energy(+$30)
 #7978 About Time(+$30)
 #5526 Energy(+$40)
 #5592 New Energy Sources(+$40)
 #5632 Energy Today and Tomorrow(+$40)
 #11164 Alternative Power Sources and Renewable Energy(+$40)
 #33322 Natural Gas Hydrates: The Fuel of the Future?(+$40)
 #34727 Energy and Resources(+$40)
 #35344 Cauldron Earth(+$40)
 #37646 Energy Wise: Developing Renewable Solutions(+$40)
 #5519 Nuclear Technology(+$40)
 #5613 Nuclear Energy(+$40)
 #2515 Niels Bohr(+$40)
 #2521 Between Order and Disorder(+$40)
 #2523 Particle Physics(+$40)
 #2526 The Living Cell(+$40)
 #2527 The Brain Machine(+$40)
 #2528 Simulated Intelligence(+$40)
 #2619 Electrostatics 1(+$40)
 #2620 Electrostatics 2(+$40)
 #2621 The Generation of Electricity(+$40)
 #2622 Commercial Generation and Transmission of Electricity(+$40)
 #2623 Electricity in the Home(+$40)
 #2624 Radioactivity(+$40)
 #2625 The Thermal Expansion of Metals(+$40)
 #2626 The Electromagnetic Spectrum(+$40)
 #2627 The Laws of Motion(+$40)
 #2628 The Laws of Motion Applied(+$40)
 #2927 Richard Feynman: Take the World from Another Point of View(+$40)
 #4971 Scientific Inquiry and Everyday Life: Steven Weinberg(+$40)
 #4986 Quarks and the Universe: Murray Gell-Mann(+$40)
 #5117 Medical Applications of Electromagnetism(+$40)
 #5118 Harmful Effects of Electromagnetism(+$40)
 #5119 Electronic Warfare: Microwaves and Weaponry(+$40)
 #5548 The Forces of Nature(+$40)
 #5564 The Physics and Physiology of Sports(+$40)
 #5566 Time(+$40)
 #5607 The Theories of Physics(+$40)
 #5617 Radars(+$40)
 #5629 Motion(+$40)
 #5897 Length(+$40)
 #5898 Time(+$40)
 #5899 Weight(+$40)
 #5900 Temperature(+$40)
 #6843 Equilibrium of Forces(+$40)
 #6844 Motion of Bodies and Mechanical Energy(+$40)
 #6845 Pressure(+$40)
 #6846 Heat(+$40)
 #6847 Waves and Sound(+$40)
 #6848 Optics(+$40)
 #6849 Magnetism and Static Electricity(+$40)
 #6850 Electrical Energy(+$40)
 #6851 Electric Current(+$40)
 #7672 The Physics of Amusement Park Rides(+$40)
 #29558 Atoms and Molecules(+$40)
 #30394 Einstein: Shedding Light on the Universe(+$40)
 #32922 Projectile Motion: Get a Grip!(+$40)
 #36228 The Physics in Baseball(+$40)
 #37153 Electrostatics(+$40)
 #38708 Ohm's Law(+$40)
 #38709 Circuits(+$40)
 #38728 Electricity and Magnetism(+$40)
 #6196 Oil and Energy(+$80)
 #30783 Bottling the Sun: The Quest for Nuclear Fusion(+$80)
 #33686 The Wilderness(+$80)
 #35025 The Hydrogen Age: Energy Solutions for the 21st Century(+$80)
 #35295 Super-Powered Earth(+$80)
 #6232 Nuclear Power Plant Safety: What's the Problem?(+$80)
 #6800 Our Hiroshima(+$80)
 #6965 Meltdown(+$80)
 #34684 Chernobyl Heart: The Dark Side of Nuclear Power(+$80)
 #6231 Electron Waves Unveil the Microcosmos(+$80)
 #6854 Mechanics in Action(+$80)
 #6855 Modeling Circular Motion(+$80)
 #6856 Modeling Satellite Motion(+$80)
 #7669 The Power of Sound(+$80)
 #7670 Why Planes Fly and Other Things(+$80)
 #11324 Electrons at Play: A Century of Electrifying Discoveries(+$80)
 #32921 The Photoelectric Effect(+$80)
 #34117 Project Poltergeist: The Mystery of Neutrinos(+$80)
 #34658 Albert Einstein and the Theory of Everything(+$80)
 #35602 Einstein Made Relatively Easy(+$80)
 #36409 Day Time, Night Time: The Clock Within Us(+$80)
 #36410 Life Time: Death and Immortality(+$80)
 #35992 The Sun(+$100)
 #39099 The Kingdom Built on Oil: Saudi Arabia's Uncertain Future(+$100)
 #2410 Climate Out of Control(+$100)
 #6143 The Atom Revealed(+$100)
 #6144 Unlocking the Secrets of Life(+$100)
 #6145 Molecular Machines Go to Work(+$100)
 #12005 The Uncertainty Principle: Making of an American Scientist(+$100)
 #30599 Photonics: The Revolution in Communications(+$100)
 #32211 Einstein's Dream(+$100)
 #32683 Parallel Universes(+$100)
 #35291 The Copenhagen Interpretation: Quantum Physics vs. Relativity(+$100)
 #36387 The Wave Nature of Light(+$100)
 #36388 The Special Theory of Relativity(+$100)
 #36389 The Quantum Leap: Photons and Light Particles(+$100)
 #36390 Geometric Optics: Reflection(+$100)
 #36391 Geometric Optics: Refraction(+$100)
 #10698 Energy: Nature's Power Source(+$109.95)
 #9133 F = ma: Physical Science Concepts(+$129.9)
 #5116 The Uses of Electricity: The Good, the Bad, and the Indefensible(+$219.9)
 #5896 Measure for Measure(+$309.85)
 #6142 The Ultra-Microscopic World(+$399.9)
 #36408 Time: The Story of Existence(+$469.85)
 #11745 Physics: The Standard Deviants(r) Core Curriculum(+$550)
 #1096 Experiment: Physics(+$649.35)
 #10277 Physics: The Standard Deviants(r) Core Curriculum(+$649.55)
 #2520 The Subject of Matter(+$669.65)
 #36386 Light: Everything You Need to Know(+$699.8)
 #6842 Investigations in Physics: Experiments and Observations(+$759.6)
 #1916 Physics in Action(+$849.55)

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Product Description:
#34288 Energy Studies - Electric Power on the Move (Run time 18 min.) DVD $49.95

This Science Screen Report examines the production, transportation, and consumption of electricity. Using the Hoover Dam as an example of efficient hydroelectric power generation, the program illustrates how transformers raise or lower voltage to manageable levels and how electricity is specifically channeled to illuminate buildings, power devices, and propel vehicles. Vital electrical concepts are discussed, including the difference between alternating and direct current, the advantages of neon over filament bulbs, and the definitions and significance of ohms, volts, and amperes. A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. Correlates to National Science Education Standards. Produced in association with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the Junior Engineering Technical Society. (18 minutes)

#34428 Energy Studies - Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Earth's Heat (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

This Science Screen Report looks at a clean and renewable energy source that is steadily gaining scientific acceptance: hot dry rocks, otherwise known as enhanced geothermal systems. The program shows how masses of heated granite approximately 3 miles underground can be accessed with advanced drilling and computer imaging techniques, and how water forced through fissures in the granite can generate steam to produce electricity. A solid foundation for studying emerging alternatives to fossil fuels. A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. Produced in association with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the Junior Engineering Technical Society. (15 minutes)

#1072 Physics - The Determination of the Velocity of Light (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

The velocity of light is determined by focusing a deflected laser beam back and forth from a rotating mirror to a fixed mirror and measuring the deflection of the beam's image from its original path. The deflection of the beam is directly related to the frequency of rotation of the mirror and inversely related to the speed of light. Students record data sets of mirror rotation frequency, measured by listening for zero beats of the mirror with an audio-oscillator, and beam deflection, measured by sighting through a lens onto a millimeter scale in the path of the beam. By plotting these data sets and knowing the distance between the mirrors and the laser source, the speed of light can be calculated from the slope of the linear relationship between deflection and frequency. (15 minutes)

#1073 Physics - The Determination of the Velocity of Radio Waves (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

The wavelengths and frequencies of radio waves are measured from the electric and magnetic fields generated from standing electromagnetic waves in an open-circuited transmission line. The distance between successive maxima in the electric and magnetic fields is one-half the wavelength of the original radiation. These maxima are measured along the transmission line with a vertical antenna on a receiver for the electric field and with a loop antenna for the magnetic field. Students record the distances between the maxima in the receiver signal. The frequency is timed by feeding the radio wave signal from the oscillator to a frequency meter which uses a piezoelectric crystal as the timer. Students can calculate the velocity of the radio waves (the product of the wavelength and the frequency) and compare this with the velocity of light measured in Program 1. (15 minutes)

#1074 Physics - The Determination of the Newtonian Constant of Gravitation (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

The Newtonian constant of gravitation is determined by measuring the gravitational force of attraction between massive spheres of lead and mercury. A torsion balance is used to measure the deflection angle which balances the torsional couple of the balance with the gravitational couple exerted by the massive spheres. Students record clockwise and counterclockwise deflections of the balance for massive spheres of different weights and materials. The torsion constant of the balance is also measured by allowing it to swing freely and timing the period of oscillation. The product of this torsion constant and the deflection angle is directly related to the Newtonian constant of gravitation. The proportionality constant in the relationship depends on the weights of the spheres, not their composition. Students can verify this by comparing their values of G for the lead and mercury spheres. (15 minutes)

#1075 Physics - pV Isotherms of CO2: 1 (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

These experiments illustrate changes in the isothermal pressure/volume relationship for a gas under a range of pressures. The volume of a constant mass of CO2 confined in a tube immersed in a bath held at 0 C is measured by students as a function of the pressure exerted by a column of mercury behind the gas. At low pressures, CO2 behaves as a perfect gas. Therefore, the relationship between log p and log V is a straight line with slope of unity. Students observe deviations from ideality at higher pressures. The phase transition from gas to liquid at high pressures is accentuated by drastic decreases in the volume of the CO2. (15 minutes)

#1076 Physics - pV Isotherms of CO2: 2 (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

In these experiments, additional pV isotherms are measured for CO2 both below and above the critical temperature with the same apparatus used in the program pV Isotherms of CO2: 1. As the temperature of the gas rises, the pV isotherm retains the same shape but is shifted upward on the graph because it has a larger intercept. However, at temperatures above the critical, the gas will not become a liquid and the large decrease in volume at high pressures will not be observed. When students plot all of the data on one graph, they can compare these differences in the pV relationship in the various temperature and pressure regions. (15 minutes)

#1077 Physics - Electron Diffraction (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

The wave behavior of electrons is studied by measuring the diffraction ring diameters produced when accelerated electrons pass through a graphite lattice. Students record the ring diameters for different electron accelerating voltages. The wavelength of the electrons is directly related to the ring diameters. Students can also verify de Broglie's relation, which states that the electron's wavelength is Planck's constant divided by the electron's momentum since the momentum is proportional to the square root of the accelerating voltage. (15 minutes)

#1078 Physics - Millikan's Oil-Drop Experiment (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

This program uses a modified version of the Millikan oil-drop apparatus to measure the radius and total charge of oil droplets. Students measure the terminal velocity of an oil drop falling under gravity in order to calculate the radius of the drop. The drop is then charged. An electric field is applied across the Millikan chamber so that the drop is suspended between the plates. The total charge on the drop can be calculated by students from the voltage required to suspend the drop. When this voltage is increased, the drop rises at a terminal velocity. Students can measure this and verify the total charge determined in the static experiment. (15 minutes)

#1079 Physics - The Rutherford Scattering of Alpha Particles (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

The experimental observations which led to the development of the Rutherford model of the atom are reproduced in this program. Students record the number and energy of ??particles scattered at different angles from bombarded thin foils of different pure materials. The observation that many ??particles which bombard a thin foil sample normal to its surface are deflected at angles greater than 25 from normal enables students to understand Rutherford's conclusion that the atom is a small, dense nucleus of positive charge with a surrounding large, diffuse electron cloud. Simple relationships describing electrostatic repulsion between the ??particles and the dense nucleus and the conservation of energy of the ?-particles provide the link between Rutherford's theory and experimental evidence which students can verify from their data. (15 minutes)

#1080 Physics - Experiments on the Doppler Effect (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

Detection of the Doppler effect-the frequency shift between source and receiver when they are traveling at different relative velocities-is common in everyday activities. In this program, students quantitatively examine this shift for sound waves from a source traveling at uniform speeds on an air track and a stationary receiver on the end of the track, and from a traveling receiver and a stationary source. The frequency shift is measured by displaying the sinusoidal signals from the source and the receiver on an oscilloscope and measuring the distance betweeen the maxima for each wave. The beats of different frequency from the source and receiver are also clearly heard on the soundtrack. The speed of the rider is measured by detectors on the track whose pulse output is also displayed on the oscilloscope. Students can also use their data to calculate the velocity of sound waves. (15 minutes)

#1081 Physics - Ionization and Excitation Potential (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

The energy transfer between accelerated electrons of different energies and atoms when they collide is presented in this program and related to the quantum theory of atomic structure. First, the ionization potential of three inert gases is measured. When the energy of electrons accelerated through a potential V, eV, is great enough to cause an electron to be ejected from an atom, an ion current is measured in the experimental apparatus. Students can compare their measurement of the ionization potential for the three gases with the correct values (given in the accompanying guide). At lower energies, bombarding electrons can transfer their kinetic energy and temporarily excite atoms. When the electrons lose their energy, the current measured in the apparatus increases because the detector is more efficient at detecting slower electrons. Students measure three discrete excitation potentials for helium, demonstrating the quantum nature of the electron structure of atoms. (15 minutes)

#1082 Physics - The Determination of Boltzmann's Constant (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

In this program a fundamental experiment is performed. First conducted at the turn of the century, it provided proof of the existence of atoms. Tiny spheres of a single diameter of a yellow resin, gamboge, are suspended in water and allowed to come to equilibrium. Students count the number of spheres in suspension through a microscope at three different viewing heights. Since each sphere and atoms are in random motion, collisions occur. Statistically, the number of particles at any height should decay exponentially with height. From the slope of the relationship betweeen the logarithm of the number of particles and height, students can calculate Boltzmann's constant and verify the statistical relationship. (15 minutes)

#1083 Physics - The Determination of a Radioactive Half-Life (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

In this program students measure the radioactive half-life of a metastable indium isotope produced by the neutron irradiation of an indium foil. After the sample has been irradiated, the number of B-rays emitted can be measured with a Geiger counter. Students record the number of clicks of the Geiger counter for one-minute periods at half-hour intervals. By plotting the logarithm of the number of counts as a function of real time, the half-life can be read directly. (15 minutes)

#1084 Physics - Cp/Cv for Helium, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

The ratio of specific heats of gases, Cp/Cv=y, is a signature of the number of atoms in the molecule. In this program, students measure this ratio for mono-, di-, and triatomic gases. The experimental apparatus consists of two large glass flasks connected by a glass tube with a steel ball which slides smoothly inside the tube. The two flasks are filled with helium to atmospheric pressure first. When the steel ball is displaced, it oscillates as a result of the compression of the gas in the flask toward which it moves and the expansion of the gas in the opposite flask. The square root of y is inversely related to the period of oscillation. Students measure the period of oscillation of the steel ball for the three different gases and from their measurements calculate y. (15 minutes)

#1085 Physics - The Effect of Pressure on the Thermal Conductivity of a Gas (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

In this program, students measure the thermal conductivity of argon over a wide range of vacuum pressures. Heat is conducted by collisions between molecules. As the pressure of a conducting gas decreases, the number of molecules of gas decreases but the distance between molecules increases, thus keeping the rate of collisions relatively constant. Students record the time it takes for the temperature of a water bath to drop exactly 2 C while surrounded by a double-walled flask filled with argon at various pressures. This time is relatively constant over the wide pressure range. By plotting the reciprocal of the cooling time as a function of gas pressure, students can verify the regions of constancy of thermal conductivity predicted by kinetic theory. (15 minutes)

#1963 Physics - Celestial Mechanics: The Distance to the Moon (Run time 15 min.) DVD $49.95

In this program students investigate the distance from Earth to the Moon, measured using a clock and simple relations of mechanics and gravitation. The program presents observations made over a period of days, allowing a test of celestial mechanics not otherwise easily performed within the confines of the classroom. (15 minutes)

#34097 Physics - Physics: Forces at Work (Run time 13 min.) DVD $49.95

This Science Screen Report explains the forces that come into play when a cyclist puts on the breaks, a pitcher throws a curve, and an airplane takes to the sky. Focusing on such concepts as acceleration, terminal velocity, friction, and balanced and unbalanced forces, the program also delineates Newton's laws of motion and Bernoulli's principle of pressurized air and fluid behavior. For discussions in applied or theoretical science, this is a skillful balance of basic and advanced concepts. A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. Produced in association with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the Junior Engineering Technical Society. (13 minutes)

#34098 Physics - Physics: Properties of Light (Run time 14 min.) DVD $49.95

This edition of Science Screen Report examines the importance of the Sun's electromagnetic energy, and how light makes life on Earth possible. Focusing on the properties of visible light and their relation to human perception, the program demonstrates how different wavelengths of light determine color, how various surfaces reflect or absorb light, and the importance of light as a communication tool throughout human history. A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. Produced in association with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the Junior Engineering Technical Society. (14 minutes)

#35216 Physics - The Franklin Institute: Wonderland of Science (Run time 27 min.) DVD $49.95

One of Pennsylvania's most popular attractions, The Franklin Institute, in Philadelphia, will awaken the scientist in everyone. This program explores the museum's state-of-the-art planetarium, IMAX theater, and many interactive exhibits that enable visitors to experience-and understand-ordinary yet fascinating phenomena like stability, momentum, and speed. Ranging from Benjamin Franklin's electrifying experiments to the present day, the institute's rich historical collection charts the progress of science in America. A viewable/printable educator's guide is available online. (27 minutes)

#9134 Physics - Force (Run time 12 min.) DVD $59.95

Using visual examples and basic calculations, this program defines and illustrates the concept of force, with an emphasis on the relationship between force and motion. Several kinds of forces are examined, including gravity, friction, and centripetal, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, electrostatic, and nuclear forces. The experiments and findings of Galileo and Newton are introduced as well. A Cambridge Educational Production. (12 minutes)

#9135 Physics - Mass (Run time 9 min.) DVD $59.95

This program uses original animation and live-action examples to present the concepts of mass, matter, and inertia, clearly distinguishing between mass and weight. Also, Newton's laws of motion are introduced, with an emphasis on mass as a measurement of inertia. A Cambridge Educational Production. (9 minutes)

#9136 Physics - Acceleration (Run time 13 min.) DVD $59.95

This program defines and demonstrates the concepts of speed, velocity, and acceleration, using basic equations to stress their interrelation. There is also a demonstration of how a variation of Newton's second law of motion can be used to determine the weight of an object. In addition, the contributions of Galileo and Newton to the understanding of acceleration, gravity, and motion are discussed. A Cambridge Educational Production. (12 minutes)

#14430 Physics - Newton's Laws of Motion (Run time 9 min.) DVD $59.95

Isaac Newton's three Laws of Motion are clearly described, using animation and video to illustrate each law at work. This video introduction to Newton's Laws combines creative animation with concise narration and a touch of humor. The program is designed to help viewers develop a basic understanding of each law and how it works in the real world. A number of key physical science terms are introduced and defined: motion, inertia, friction, force, mass, acceleration, and resistance. There's also a brief introduction to Isaac Newton and his contributions to our understanding of motion. A Cambridge Educational Production. One 10-minute video.

#33880 Energy Studies - The Science of Fuels and Gases (Run time 17 min.) DVD $69.95

The Earth is surrounded and permeated by gases. This program, a Science Screen Report, looks at the composition, properties, and applications of fuels and gases. Through experiments and real-world examples, it illustrates how the uses of different gases relate to their weight, combustibility, and degree to which they can be compressed or liquefied. The video also discusses how fossil fuels and gases such as methane and hydrogen are applied to heating, cooking, and vehicular travel. A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. Correlates to National Science Education Standards. Produced in association with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the Junior Engineering Technical Society. (17 minutes)

#29354 Nuclear Studies - Conservation and Energy Alternatives: Powering the Future (Run time 30 min.) DVD $69.95

Destabilization in the Middle East and concerns over global warming are heating up the national dialogue on how America intends to power itself into the future. In segment one of this NewsHour program, Michael Marvin, of the Council for Sustainable Energy; Dan Reicher, of the World Resources Institute; Myron Ebell, of the Competitive Enterprise Group; and Herbert Inhaber, author of Why Energy Conservation Fails, consider the big picture. Then, segment two narrows the focus to wind power: improvements in wind farm technology, government incentives and legislation, and rising consumer demand. Drawbacks such as the unpredictability of wind are also considered. (30 minutes)

#5622 Physics - Speed (Run time 23 min.) DVD $69.95

This program covers speed and displacement in vertebrates, showing how adaptations to rapid movement have always been important to the development of almost all vertebrate groups; speed and the human body, which is very sensitive to speed variations-acceleration, for example; and speed and aerodynamics, which involves the study of forces resulting from the interaction between a solid mass and the surrounding atmosphere. The program also looks at computer simulation and wind and hydrodynamic tunnels, which are the tools used to study this discipline. (23 minutes)

#10278 Physics - Numbers, Units, Scalars, and Vectors (Run time 34 min.) DVD $69.95

Even Deedee Dodobird knows that a strong general knowledge of scientific and mathematical concepts makes it much easier to understand physics, the study of how things work. Section one of this program demonstrates fundamental abilities such as how to manipulate numbers using scientific notation and how to convert and algebraically cancel SI units. In section two, scalars and vectors are presented, including the head-to-tail and component methods of vector addition, dot products and cross products, and even a healthy dose of trigonometry. (34 minutes)

#10279 Physics - One-Dimensional Kinematics (Run time 17 min.) DVD $69.95

In this program, one-dimensional wonderboy Not-Quite-Bright and other experts investigate the one-dimensional quantities of displacement, average and instantaneous velocity, and average and instantaneous acceleration through skiing, swimming, and speed-walking vignettes. The kinematic equations for instantaneous velocity, displacement, and final velocity are also examined, along with supporting examples. (17 minutes)

#10280 Physics - Projectile Motion (Run time 21 min.) DVD $69.95

This program introduces the "plane facts" of two-dimensional kinematics via Bright-As-Light, the two-dimensional supergirl. Using scenarios based on soccer and archery, the projectile motion equations for calculating initial horizontal and vertical magnitudes, horizontal and vertical velocities, and horizontal and vertical displacements are analyzed in detail. (21 minutes)

#10281 Physics - Circular and Rotational Motion (Run time 22 min.) DVD $69.95

This program rounds out the subject of two-dimensional kinematics with a comprehensive examination of circular and rotational motion. Topics include centripetal force, centripetal acceleration, period, velocity, tangential acceleration, and total acceleration; axis of rotation, rotating through an angle, radians, angular velocity, and linear speed; and just a touch of geometry. (22 minutes)

#10282 Physics - Linear Momentum and Newton's Laws of Motion (Run time 24 min.) DVD $69.95

In section one of this program, colliding basketball players demonstrate the Principle of Conservation of Momentum, while section two debuts all three of Newton's Laws of Motion, as illustrated by moving a large bookcase, hanging from a rope, and pushing against a wall. Newtonian concepts of inertia, force, mass, weight, equilibrium, tension, and momentum, plus free-body diagramming, are also covered. "Live the laws, love the laws, be one with the laws." (24 minutes)

#10283 Physics - Friction, Work, and Energy (Run time 25 min.) DVD $69.95

Can a giant hunk of chocolate be used to illustrate friction? It is in section one of this program, which describes kinetic and static friction, the normal force, and the coefficient of friction. In section two, a group of construction workers and the cartoon brothers Bumpkin Bill and Urban Tom elucidate the true nature of work, power, and energy. The Work-Kinetic Energy Principle is also addressed in an example using the "Alexandria Ferro XL" sports car. (25 minutes)

#10284 Physics - Gravitation (Run time 18 min.) DVD $69.95

Why are things attracted to one another? How long does it take the moon Titan to complete one orbit around Saturn? And what is the weight of a pizza on the Sun? Using the help of a Sun Surface Pizza deliveryperson, this program answers these and other burning questions regarding the Law of Universal Gravitation and all three of Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion. (18 minutes)

#10285 Physics - Harmonic Motion and Waves (Run time 23 min.) DVD $69.95

Section one of this program sheds light on the behavior of springs and pendulums undergoing simple harmonic motion, illuminating the application of Hooke's Law and the formula for calculating oscillation. In section two, physics experts like "Working Joe" discuss wave terminology, principles such as periodic waves, and wave types, including transverse, longitudinal, and surface waves. Examples using rope, a radio, and an electric guitar reinforce these fundamentals. (23 minutes)

#10286 Physics - Heat (Run time 34 min.) DVD $69.95

When a werewolf stalks hyperactive teens in Hawaii, only the concept of phase changes can save them. This program outlines the mechanics of heat transference within isolated systems, including specific heat capacity; the relationship between latent heat and changes of state; the processes of conduction, convection, and radiation; and the theory behind the work produced by an internal combustion engine. (34 minutes)

#10287 Physics - Thermodynamics (Run time 27 min.) DVD $69.95

A 100% efficient automobile engine is a nice idea. Unfortunately, it breaks the law-the Second Law of Thermodynamics, that is. This program judiciously explains both Laws of Thermodynamics, providing details on isovolumetric, isobaric, and adiabatic processes. Heat engines, with their hot and cold reservoirs, are also given their day in court, along with the concept of entropy, which is charged with disorderly conduct. (27 minutes)

#35595 Physics - Magnetic Force (Run time 26 min.) DVD $69.95

Beginning with lodestones and ending with MagLev trains, this program introduces viewers to magnetic theory, magnetic fields and poles, the Earth as a magnet, electromagnets and electric motors, and magnets in everyday life. Experiments, animated graphics, and footage of applied magnetism are used to reinforce these essential scientific concepts. (25 minutes)

#10699 Energy Studies - Mechanical, Thermal, and Light Energy (Run time 19 min.) DVD $79.95

How is energy created and harnessed? What can it be used for? And what scientific principles make it possible? This program analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical, thermal, and light energy, covering their applications to industrial, commercial, residential, and transportation needs. The difference between potential and kinetic energy, the importance of conservation, and the environmental impact of energy generation are described as well. A Meridian Production. (18 minutes)

#10700 Energy Studies - Chemical, Electrical, and Nuclear Energy (Run time 17 min.) DVD $79.95

Behind all forms of energy are scientific laws and concepts that allow them to do work. What are they, and how do they shape the ways in which energy is used? This program investigates the pros and cons of chemical, electrical, and nuclear energy, addressing their applications to industrial, commercial, residential, and transportation needs. The difference between potential and kinetic energy, the importance of conservation, and the environmental impact of energy generation are explained as well. A Meridian Production. (17 minutes)

#7978 Physics - About Time (Run time 37 min.) DVD $79.95

What is time? Did it have a beginning? Will it ever end? Is it something that humans have created, or does it exist independently of the universe? This intriguing program explores the meaning of time through the eyes of poets, philosophers, and scientists throughout the ages. In addition, it traces the development of time-measuring and time-keeping instruments, from sundials and calendars, to time zones and atomic clocks. A Cambridge Educational Production. (37 minutes)

#5526 Energy Studies - Energy (Run time 23 min.) DVD $89.95

Do a runner's energy and the energy used to light and warm us have something in common? This program explains that yes, just like machines, living things consume energy. In nature, the energy of the sun is what nourishes plants, animals, and human beings. However, humanity has learned to harness other forms of energy, such as electricity, which was largely responsible for the development of industrial societies. Scientists are also trying to master new energy forms. Hydrogen, available in unlimited quantities in water, is one of the resources of the future. (23 minutes)

#5592 Energy Studies - New Energy Sources (Run time 23 min.) DVD $89.95

As the need for energy increases while carbon and petroleum are known to be running out, the search is on for cleaner and safer fuels. This program looks at the pros and cons of natural gas as well as at tidal energy, which is renewable and does not cause atmospheric pollution, and at a new form of energy that may supply the engines of our future: green petroleum, which is manufactured from plants. (23 minutes)

#5632 Energy Studies - Energy Today and Tomorrow (Run time 23 min.) DVD $89.95

This program covers the drilling, extraction, and refining of petroleum: the installation of tubes inside the well so that the petroleum can be extracted; the separation of natural gas, salt water, and sediments before the petroleum is sent to the refinery; the separation at the refinery of the different constituents of crude petroleum; the manufacture of by-products; and distillation for gasoline. The program also covers wind energy and the uses of aerogenerators to provide energy. (23 minutes)

#11164 Energy Studies - Alternative Power Sources and Renewable Energy (Run time 22 min.) DVD $89.95

This program demonstrates how wind turbines, solar cells, hybrid automobiles, and coal gasification plants are beginning to transform the way the world is powered. The U.S. Secretary of Energy, the director of the National Wind Technology Center, the CEO of Enron Wind Corporation, representatives of Worldwatch Institute and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and others discuss the challenge of satisfying the rapidly increasing global demand for energy while developing environmentally friendly forms of power generation to reduce air pollution and lessen the threat of global warming. (22 minutes)

#33322 Energy Studies - Natural Gas Hydrates: The Fuel of the Future? (Run time 20 min.) DVD $89.95

This program tracks the progress of a multinational research team headed by Scott Dallimore, of the Geological Survey of Canada, and Tim Collett, of the U.S. Geological Survey, as the team members tap and study deposits of natural gas hydrates-colossal reserves of clean-burning energy-located in the Canadian tundra. In the process, they address the technical and economic challenges of processing methane hydrates for consumer use. Gaseous methane, bubbling up through the ice, is studied as well. Is it coming from methane hydrate deposits or from somewhere else? And to what extent is it adding to global warming? (20 minutes)

#34727 Energy Studies - Energy and Resources (Run time 21 min.) DVD $89.95

As the Earth's fossil fuel reserves decline, what forms of energy will come next? After discussing the formation, uses, and consequences of burning coal, oil, and natural gas, this video explores the development of alternative resources that may someday completely replace them: nuclear power, solar energy, biomass, geothermal energy, hydroelectric power, and wind power. Benefits, costs, and environmental impacts are considered. A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. Correlates to National Science Education Standards, National Educational Technology Standards, and Standards for the English Language Arts. A Cambridge Educational Production. (21 minutes)

#35344 Energy Studies - Cauldron Earth (Run time 29 min.) DVD $89.95

Students investigating the latest advances in technology and manufacturing should understand the importance of the Earth's natural resources. This program shows how research into the chemical makeup of geological and biological materials drives the innovation of energy systems, building methods, and transportation technology-and how these improvements can save lives and reduce stress on the environment. Hydrogen fuel cells, resin coatings for giant wind turbines, wax-plaster mixtures for energy-efficient homes-the video features these and many other advances, suggesting a future in which humanity can both profit from and protect the Earth. (29 minutes)

#37646 Energy Studies - Energy Wise: Developing Renewable Solutions (Run time 24 min.) DVD $89.95

Access to affordable, sustainable energy supplies is a growing concern around the world. This program looks at successful enterprises that are providing some renewable energy solutions. In Scotland, small-scale turbines put wind power within the reach of domestic users. In Sweden, the world's first train to be run solely on biogas has been developed. In Nepal, biogas stoves are improving the quality of life in many ways. And in India, agricultural plant waste is being turned into solid fuel briquettes for use in industrial stoves and boilers, while a solar energy company has developed environmentally friendly lighting technology that disadvantaged communities can afford. (24 minutes)

#5519 Nuclear Studies - Nuclear Technology (Run time 23 min.) DVD $89.95

Just the term "nuclear energy" makes many people shudder. Yet, though it sometimes escapes human control, nuclear energy is a source of benefits, and could someday even satisfy most of our energy needs. This program takes us to the heart of the atom, to examine the processes of fission and fusion by which energy can be produced with the use of uranium or even water. We learn that nuclear energy is also used to save lives (with radiation therapy) and to prevent illness (with scintiscanning). We also learn that nuclear energy, through a controversial process called food irradiation, can help prolong the length of time that foods can be preserved. (23 minutes)

#5613 Nuclear Studies - Nuclear Energy (Run time 23 min.) DVD $89.95

This program looks inside a modern nuclear reactor and explores its functions in detail. It also addresses nuclear safety-the various measures intended to diminish the risk of accidents and radioactive emissions. Finally, the program looks at the steps involved in the production and storage of radioactive waste, as well as the dangers of its by-products. (23 minutes)

#2515 Physics - Niels Bohr (Run time 58 min.) DVD $89.95

When the atom, which had since ancient times been considered the smallest particle in the universe, turned out to constitute a whole new universe, a major new physics was born. This program is devoted to a portrait of the seminal figure in the field of nuclear physics. It tells the story of Niels Bohr's life, of his institute, and of his work in unraveling the structure of the atom, laying the groundwork for the atomic bomb, and seeking to prevent its use. (58 minutes)

#2521 Physics - Between Order and Disorder (Run time 26 min.) DVD $89.95

This program offers an exploration of the various more or less organized states of matter. It seeks to define matter (John Bell, Roger Penrose, and Allan Guth offer their views) and the various states of matter: crystals, superconductors, superfluids, plasma; turbulence as a state of matter, in the lab and the atmosphere; chaos and orbital chaos; the double pendulum; the second Copernican revolution. On-camera explanations are given by Roger Penrose, Jerry Torrance, Jerome Cuomo, Ian Hutchinson, Ted Yang, Uriel Frisch, Benoit Mandelbrot, Jack Wisdom, and others. (26 minutes)

#2523 Physics - Particle Physics (Run time 26 min.) DVD $89.95

The theory used to describe the phenomena of infinite smallness arose early in the twentieth century. Quantum mechanics produced a coherent description of the atom and of the interactions of its constituent parts; better yet, it provided a standard model that unified three of the four forces at work in nature. Unfortunately, it conflicted with gravitation. In this program, the methods of particle physics are detailed by, among others, Murray Gell-Mann, Steven Weinberg, Burton Richter, Ugo Amaldi, and Pierre Dariulat. (26 minutes)

#2526 Physics - The Living Cell (Run time 26 min.) DVD $89.95

The living cell is a chemical factory. How does it receive and send information? How does it replicate itself? How does the plasticity and softness of living matter relate to the rigidity of the genetic programs contained within the cell nuclei? This program shows the collective behavior of cells and the interactions between cells. The celebrated British neurologist Steven Rose offers a compelling demonstration of the collective behavior of neurons and explains their importance in the development of the brain. (26 minutes)

#2527 Physics - The Brain Machine (Run time 26 min.) DVD $89.95

We can construct a model of the human brain; will we some day be able to simulate its functioning? This program covers the history of research into artificial intelligence from the 1960s forward, from the performance of calculations to the simulation of complex reasoning processes; compares computer solution pathways to the processes of the brain; and examines the problem of thinking from various physiological, neurological, and philosophical approaches. Among those offering their points of view are Lewis Tucker of Thinking Machines, Carver Mead of Caltech (VLSI, the vision machine), Sir James Lighthill (history of IA), Rodney Brooks of MIT, Terrence Sejnowski of the Salk Institute, and Lofti Zadeh of Berkeley. (26 minutes)

#2528 Physics - Simulated Intelligence (Run time 26 min.) DVD $89.95

There are those who believe that true intelligence cannot exist without consciousness. The question therefore becomes whether consciousness can be artificially created. Steven Rose, the British neurologist, philosopher Sydney Denett, Rodney Brooks of MIT, and Terrence Sejnowski of the Salk Institute address the question. (26 minutes)

#2619 Physics - Electrostatics 1 (Run time 21 min.) DVD $89.95

The following experiments are performed: Coulombic attraction and repulsion; Perrin's tube: the charge on electrons; electrostatic charge on carpets; xerography, which is demonstrated in the laboratory and its application in a copying machine shown step-by-step; electrostatic precipitation, which is demonstrated in the laboratory by a model showing that smoke escaping from a chimney is eliminated when high voltage is switched on, and in an industrial application, which shows pollutants collected before emission into the air. Finally, lightning conductors are explained and "artificial lightning" demonstrated. (21 minutes)

#2620 Physics - Electrostatics 2 (Run time 21 min.) DVD $89.95

Experiments are performed:to demonstrate the electrostatic charge on liquids: paraffin, which is not too electrically conductive, is rapidly pumped through a plastic filter and emerges carrying an electrical charge which rapidly builds up, in a receiving vessel, a potential above 1500 volts; the procedure for reducing the hazard of pumping inflammable fluids is illustrated at an airport where refuelling operations are shown. High voltages are also produced in the Van der Graaff generators; a small laboratory model is shown in action as well as a very large one used at the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority, and its uses are explained, both in the effort to understand the structure of matter and in the practical application of atomic physics to nuclear technology. Capacitors provide a useful conceptual link between electricity and electrostatics; laboratory demonstrations show how a capacitor works and how changes in capacitance can be put to practical use. (21 minutes)

#2621 Physics - The Generation of Electricity (Run time 19 min.) DVD $89.95

The basic principle of electromagnetic generation of electric current is demonstrated in the laboratory; the principles behind the rather complicated construction of AC and DC generators is elucidated by means of a single coil; the use of slip rings and commutators is demonstrated; and a demonstration shows the relationship between the amounts of mechanical energy input in a generator and the electrical energy output. Sequences at a 2,000-megawatt coal-fired generator demonstrate that the same basic principles are operative, but the processes in a large industrial electricity generator are far more complex. (19 minutes)

#2622 Physics - Commercial Generation and Transmission of Electricity (Run time 20 min.) DVD $89.95

This program shows sequences at a coal-burning plant and also at a nuclear reactor, demonstrating how the nuclear reactor operates, the precautions necessary to insure control of the reactor at all times, and the monitoring for radiation. Comparisons are made between the two types of power plants in the areas of efficiency, the availability of fuel, and the reprocessing and disposal of waste. The program also shows why electricity must be transmitted at high voltages, how transformers work, and how they are used. (20 minutes)

#2623 Physics - Electricity in the Home (Run time 19 min.) DVD $89.95

This program shows how electricity used in the home is measured, and demonstrates energy consumption by means of ammeters attached to various appliances. Numerous examples are given of the equations Power=Voltage x Current and Heat generated=current2 x resistance x time for which the current passes, the latter demonstrated in the consideration of the thickness of cables, the function of fuses, and the principles of grounding and wiring. Examples of improper, and therefore dangerous, wiring are shown. (19 minutes)

#2624 Physics - Radioactivity (Run time 21 min.) DVD $89.95

This program demonstrates and explains the ionization of air; radiation detectors and counters work on the principle that radiation causes ionization, so that a current flow can be detected. The program uses a diffusion cloud chamber to make visible the tracks of particles emitted from a radioactive source and make clear the random nature of the emissions. A quantitative experiment of a relatively short-lived radioisotope measures radioactive decay. And a sequence at an experimental research reactor provides a practical example of the extreme dangers in handling, storing, and disposing of radioactive materials. (21 minutes)

#2625 Physics - The Thermal Expansion of Metals (Run time 20 min.) DVD $89.95

A simple but dramatic demonstration of metallic expansion is presented by passing an electric current through a length of wire from which a small weight is hung to keep it taut; as the wire heats up, it sags, and when the current .is switched off, it contracts again. A simple laboratory experiment shows how the coefficient of linear expansion of brass can be determined. And some practical consequences of thermal expansion are considered: railway tracks must be laid in lengths and with appropriate gaps to account for temperature changes; roads, bridges, and buildings present similar problems-the program shows how alterations are allowed for in an electric generating station. The program also demonstrates the uses of bimetallic strips, which rely on the fact that different metals have different expansivities, and of shrink-fitting. (20 minutes)

#2626 Physics - The Electromagnetic Spectrum (Run time 21 min.) DVD $89.95

A number of demonstrations provide evidence that there are other kinds of radiation besides visible light and that they share the same fundamental properties with visible light and with one another; the reflection of electromagnetic radiation and the collection and focusing of radio waves by radiotelescopes demonstrate that different kinds of radiation are part of the same electromagnetic spectrum-waves of the same kind, differing only in wavelength. Another group of demonstrations and applications show the same principle: a laser beam demonstrates refraction through a glass prism; total internal reflection demonstrates the kindred nature of light and microwaves, applications of which are shown by means of a microwave oven; the inverse relationship between frequency and wavelength; and the nature and application of X-radiation. (21 minutes)

#2627 Physics - The Laws of Motion (Run time 21 min.) DVD $89.95

This program provides demonstrations of Newton's First Law of Motion, that if no forces act upon a moving body, it will continue to move in a straight line at the same speed; Newton's Second Law of Motion, that if a force acts upon a body, it causes an acceleration which is proportional to the force (the law is both tested and seen in ordinary experience in the braking distance of a car); and Newton's Third Law of Motion, which states that action and reaction are equal and opposite. An automobile seat-belt rig is used to demonstrate the conservation of momentum. (21 minutes)

#2628 Physics - The Laws of Motion Applied (Run time 20 min.) DVD $89.95

This program continues the study of the Laws of Motion with a study of collisions and the conservation of momentum, showing the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions and using a laboratory air track to determine the muzzle velocity of a rifle bullet. An application of Newton's Laws using a rocket illustrates the conservation of momentum, and a modern laboratory substitute for Galileo's experiment explains why a feather and a metal washer, dropped simultaneously from the same height in a vacuum, reach the ground at the same time. The program demonstrates how the complex technology of space flight depends on the applications of the Laws of Motion. (20 minutes)

#2927 Physics - Richard Feynman: Take the World from Another Point of View (Run time 26 min.) DVD $89.95

The enfant terrible of American physics describes how his sense of continuous wonder, his childlike curiosity about anything and everything, led him inevitably to a life in science. That the connecting link between curiosity and the Nobel Prize is comprised of perseverance and brilliance is made abundantly clear by Feynman's far-ranging and self-deprecating remarks, which again and again underscore how for him the most abstruse insights were-perfectly obvious! (38 minutes)

#4971 Physics - Scientific Inquiry and Everyday Life: Steven Weinberg (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

From the quark, so small nobody will ever see it, to the 53-mile-long supercollider, so expensive we never built it, the world of physical science gropes with the deepest question of all: "Why is there something instead of nothing?" In this program with Bill Moyers, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Steven Weinberg discusses the nature of scientific inquiry and its close relationship to everyday life. Can scientific research into the beginnings of the universe lead us to discover a sense of beauty in the world around us and in our minds? (30 minutes)

#4986 Physics - Quarks and the Universe: Murray Gell-Mann (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

To walk around with Murray Gell-Mann is to see the world through the keen eyes of a scientist. Gell-Mann, by temperament, approaches elementary particle physics from the point of view of a naturalist. We owe to him the discovery in 1952 of the quantity in theoretical physics called "strangeness." In 1969, he received the Nobel Prize for work that led to the discovery of "quarks." In this program with Bill Moyers, Gell-Mann discusses the simplicity and complexity of the universe, and the relation between the fundamental laws that govern the universe and the enormous complexity of the universe itself. (30 minutes)

#5117 Physics - Medical Applications of Electromagnetism (Run time 56 min.) DVD $89.95

The first recorded case of a broken bone being mended by electricity was in 1812, but the greater part of the medical profession still regards the use of electricity, in this fashion, with suspicion. This program shows how some doctors in England are using electromagnetism to accelerate healing, mend bones, and help heroin addicts overcome the agonies of withdrawal. It also shows the pioneering work of a Swedish radiologist who is treating breast and lung cancer patients with direct current electricity. (56 minutes)

#5118 Physics - Harmful Effects of Electromagnetism (Run time 56 min.) DVD $89.95

This program examines the growing evidence that electricity can be very harmful to those who live or work too close to high-voltage power lines. It looks at research in England, the U.S., Canada, and Spain to show linkages between frequent exposure to high voltage and abnormally high rates of depression and other illnesses in humans and genetic malformations and stillbirths in animals. It also presents the not-surprisingly unhelpful attitude of utility companies, for whom the cost of altering the existing system of power delivery would be onerous indeed. (56 minutes)

#5119 Physics - Electronic Warfare: Microwaves and Weaponry (Run time 56 min.) DVD $89.95

Russians irradiating the American Embassy in Moscow with microwave signals and subsequent medical tests showing the white blood cell count of Embassy staff to be 40% above normal... American naval vessels, with their heavy use of radar, emitting 100 times as many microwaves as those used on the Moscow Embassy... a microwave communication system repairman dead of over-exposure to microwave radiation...This program looks at some of the many examples of illness caused by or attributed to radiation: cancer, cataracts, miscarriage, and birth defects. It also looks at some scenarios for using radiation and pulsation in electronic warfare. (56 minutes)

#5548 Physics - The Forces of Nature (Run time 23 min.) DVD $89.95

Scientists have always been interested in probing the inner structure of matter. Now they have laid the foundation of a unified theory that four basic forces are responsible for the world as we know it: gravity, electromagnetic force, radioactivity, and nuclear force. Although we lack a full understanding of these forces, we have learned to make use of them for numerous purposes, from energy production to medical procedures. Experiments carried out in major physics laboratories throughout the world may enable physicists to fulfill their ultimate objective: a unifying theory describing the four major forces, a single-equation theory encompassing all of the physical phenomena in the universe. (23 minutes)

#5564 Physics - The Physics and Physiology of Sports (Run time 23 min.) DVD $89.95

When we engage in a sports activity, we are usually not aware of the scientific way in which the activity combines the principles of physics and physiology. This program describes the principles governing the following sports activities: scuba diving, flying, sailing, and gymnastics. Content ranges from nitrogen bubbles and the "bends" through the Bernoulli principle to semicircular canals, all essential constituents of our sporting activities. (23 minutes)

#5566 Physics - Time (Run time 23 min.) DVD $89.95

Society is governed by time and, consequently, by the need to measure it. From the water clock to the atomic clock, this program shows how various time-measuring techniques have developed. It also gives us an idea of the immensity of the scale of time, which goes from billionths of a second to billions of years. It also deals with the perception of time, which is greatly influenced by psychological and physiological factors. (23 minutes)

#5607 Physics - The Theories of Physics (Run time 23 min.) DVD $89.95

What would happen if we could move at the speed of light? What is the true inner nature of matter and energy? When and how was our universe created? These three questions are at the heart of modern science; in answer, 20th-century physicists have offered at least three theories. These theories are presented here: Einstein's theory of relativity, the quantum theory, and the big bang theory. (23 minutes)

#5617 Physics - Radars (Run time 23 min.) DVD $89.95

This program covers the principles of radars, which are essentially made up of a transmitter, an antenna, and a receiver; and how radars work. More specifically, we see how radar is used in air traffic control, in satellite missions, and in aerial cartography. (23 minutes)

#5629 Physics - Motion (Run time 23 min.) DVD $89.95

This program covers the principles of motion. It explains that human walking is the result of a long evolution, learned at a very early age and produced from the action of antagonistic muscles; shows locomotion in robots and how different robots are designed to accomplish different kinds of locomotion in different places under different circumstances; and concludes with a look at computer animation and the software that enables us to create animated objects and characters whose movements are simulated by a study of the movements of actual people, animals, and things. (23 minutes)

#5897 Physics - Length (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

Why did Hercules hold his breath? What does barley have to do with our shoe sizes? Why has one man driven a million and a half miles on his way to work? What does the meter have to do with the French Revolution? This program answers these and other questions as it explains the origins of the inch, the foot, the yard, the mile, and the meter. (30 minutes)

#5898 Physics - Time (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

From dawn to dusk, our lives race against the clock. Once, time was our servant; now we are its slave. This program examines the origins of the year, the leap year, the month, week, hour, minutes, seconds, the development of the clock, and the atomic clock. (30 minutes)

#5899 Physics - Weight (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

How do you lose four pounds in one hour? Why did an eccentric 17th-century doctor spend 30 years sitting on weighing scales? These are just a few of the questions answered in this program, as it explains the development of the balance, the pound, the baker's dozen, and the English weight, the stone. (30 minutes)

#5900 Physics - Temperature (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

This program takes a trip up the temperature scale, from the coldest place in the universe to the hottest. Among the main subjects covered in the program are Fahrenheit and Celsius, why 0 C is 32 F, absolute zero, the Kelvin scale, and cryogenics. (30 minutes)

#6843 Physics - Equilibrium of Forces (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

Using a frog in free fall; a laser; a fixed pulley, spring balance, and scale; balancing toys; a model of a bridge; a coffee can; a Cartesian diver; and a goldfish, this program teaches equilibrium of forces by demonstrating the following concepts:o zero gravityo balance and center of gravityo role of a keystone in an archo weight of gaseso weight, volume, displacement, and buoyancyo Archimedes' Principle(30 minutes)

#6844 Physics - Motion of Bodies and Mechanical Energy (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

This program details the movements of an amusement park's waterchute boat and roller coaster; an ice skater; a diver; a rubber ball; a rocket; toy carts; a steel ball and loop; and a swinging church lamp to investigate the following concepts:o law of inertiao uniformly accelerated and uniform straight motiono free-fall motiono acceleration due to gravityo law of conservation of momentumo potential and kinetic energyo Galileo's isochronism of a pendulum(30 minutes)

#6845 Physics - Pressure (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

By featuring a water rocket; a syringe and a toy pig; balloons; a drum; a fountain made of a flask and tubes; oil and beer cans lowered into the depths of the ocean; and an expedition that transports a glass tube filled with mercury up Mt. Fuji to 12,388 feet above sea level, this program helps to illustrate the following content:o air pressureo equal forceo vacuumo atmospheric pressureo balanced pressureo pressure from depth of watero Torricelli's experiment(30 minutes)

#6846 Physics - Heat (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

Using a bow-drill and flint stones; a glass tube filled with cotton and a piston; crushed pieces of dry ice in a vinyl pipe; liquid nitrogen and a butane lighter, a rose, a ball, and mercury; a bi-metallic strip of brass and aluminum; and a wooden stick and copper, iron, and glass rods, the following concepts are demonstrated:o changing the energy of movement to heat energyo using compressed air to create fireo the three states of mattero heat and changes of volumeo heat expansiono thermal conductiono convection(30 minutes)

#6847 Physics - Waves and Sound (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

A guitar; Kundt's apparatus; a tuning fork and a column of air inside a tube; a resonating fish pot; a cymbal-playing toy monkey in a vacuum jar; a Slinky; an oscilloscope; the rim of a wine glass; and a fish-finder are just some of the items used to demonstrate the following concepts:o sound and vibrationo resonanceo standing waveso amplitudeo traverse, longitudinal, planar, and circular waveso parabolic antennas and mirrorso reflection and refraction of waves(30 minutes)

#6848 Physics - Optics (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

This investigation uses a candle placed between two mirrors; a laser and smoke lens; a water tank; a right-angle prism; a fiber-optic bundle; four planar mirrors; a convex lens; a coffee cup, a coin, and chopsticks; and a paraboloid mirror and a 3-D mouse to explore the following concepts:o mirrors and image formationo convex and concave mirrorso straight line propagation and reflection of lighto angles of incidence, reflection, and refractiono principles of optical communicationo focal pointo holograms(30 minutes)

#6849 Physics - Magnetism and Static Electricity (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

Using a bar magnet and compass; a neodymium magnet, soft iron, and a dumbbell; a ferrite magnet crushed into small pieces; a magnetized and broken knife blade; nails and a plastic plate with layers of aluminum, copper, and iron in-between; an iron bar, enamel wire, and a battery; and an ebonite bar, a wool cloth, and a leaf electroscope, this program investigates the following concepts:o magnetic field, poles, and lines of forceo Curie temperatureo electromagnetso static electricityo Thompson's water droplet experimento like and unlike charges(30 minutes)

#6850 Physics - Electrical Energy (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

This program uses a solar-powered toy car; magnets, coils of enamel wire, a small bulb, and a propeller; copper wire; a galvanometer; a screen coil and a swing coil; aluminum rods and two dry cell batteries; liquid nitrogen, a superconductor, and a neodymium magnet; and a montage of different power plants to demonstrate the following concepts:o dynamoso electromagnetic inductiono how generators worko mutual inductiono eddy currento superconductorso steam, hydroelectric, nuclear, wave, and wind energy conversion(30 minutes)

#6851 Physics - Electric Current (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

This investigation employs a 100-watt incandescent bulb, nichrome wire, and a variac; electric wire, a dry cell, and a compass; an ammeter; an induction coil; argon, helium, neon, and mercury and a discharge tube; a string of lights on a Christmas tree; a Crookes tube and induction coil; and electrodes, an electric bulb, and a beaker alternately filled with water, sugar, table salt, vinegar, lemon juice, and orange juice solutions to understand the following:o how incandescent bulbs and fluorescent tubes worko Ohm's lawo proportional relationship between current and voltageo series and parallel configurationso positive and negative electronso electrically conductive and nonconductive liquidso ions(30 minutes)

#7672 Physics - The Physics of Amusement Park Rides (Run time 30 min.) DVD $89.95

Want to know where to sit on a roller coaster to get the biggest thrill? In this program, engineers use the principles of physics to design amusement park rides. Viewers will be catapulted along on a roller coaster, slammed into their seats, glued against a wall, shot down a luge course, and swung around on a hellacious ride they call "the corkscrew." As they go, they learn the relationship between kinetic and potential energy, vectors, speed, friction, and acceleration in an exciting real-world format. Original BBC broadcast title: Most Swirling, Swinging, Sliding, Spinning, Up and Down Ride of Your Life. (30 minutes)

#29558 Physics - Atoms and Molecules (Run time 17 min.) DVD $89.95

In this concise and logically formatted program, students discover the fundamental building blocks of the universe: the elements. Lively computer animation makes the atom and its constituent parts-the proton, neutron, and electron-easy to understand. The Bohr Model and the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom are clearly differentiated. Working from these concepts, students can then make sense of the Periodic Table with its arrangement according to Atomic Mass. The program also explains the concept of the mole and the different chemical bonds within molecules and compounds. A valuable summary at the end of the video reinforces all the concepts. Correlates to Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy from the American Association for the Advancement of Science. A Cambridge Educational Production. (16 minutes)

#30394 Physics - Einstein: Shedding Light on the Universe (Run time 31 min.) DVD $89.95

This clever animated biography of Albert Einstein incorporates photos and quotes into a lively overview of the physicist's life and ideas. Careful attention is given to how Einstein reconciled conventional velocity addition with the constant speed of light and how he arrived at his special and general theories of relativity. His most famous equation, E=mc2, is derived in four simple steps. The tapping of matter's energy through fission and fusion is also addressed. As entertaining as it is informative, this program is a must for any introduction to atomic physics and Einstein's contributions to 20th-century science. (31 minutes)

#32922 Physics - Projectile Motion: Get a Grip! (Run time 25 min.) DVD $89.95

Presenting a cornerstone of physics, this program explores the motion of projectiles under gravity-initially in one dimension and then in two-through the examples of juggling balls, as well as stunt bikes and paragliders. Frequent summaries are combined with convenient cues to pause the program and allow students to apply their knowledge. Topics include: motion under constant acceleration, parabolic path of a projectile, resolving projectile motion into horizontal and vertical components, calculating air resistance using force vectors, and appropriate formulas for describing the path of any object in motion. (25 minutes)

#36228 Physics - The Physics in Baseball (Run time 27 min.) DVD $89.95

When you use baseball to demonstrate the principles of physics, your students will see science in a whole new way. Divided into four segments, this program takes a close look at the pitch (how gravity, drag, and the Magnus force are used to manipulate the path of the ball); the hit (kinetic energy, the coefficient of restitution, and Newton's Laws of Motion-and the changes that result when rawhide meets wood); the flight (the effects of launch angle, drag, turbulence, temperature, air density, and the Magnus force on a ball during its flight to the bleachers); and running the bases (force, mass, inertia, and acceleration as the crowd goes wild!). A fascinating and informative teaching tool. Correlates to the National Science Education Standards and the Ohio Science Academic Content Standards. A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. (27 minutes)

#37153 Physics - Electrostatics (Run time 32 min.) DVD $89.95

This program explores basic electricity as it was perceived by Benjamin Franklin and other early theorists, as well as the principles of positive and negative charge, conduction and induction, atoms and electrons, and elementary charge. Coulomb's Law is related in detail, including the torsion balance experiment that led to the breakthrough. Insulators, semiconductors, and superconductors are also explained and demonstrated. Specific modules include Electricity, Positive and Negative, Conduction and Induction, Atoms and Charge, Elementary Charge, Coulomb's Law, and Insulators and Conductors. Correlates to all National CTE Organizational Standards (including the provisions of the Perkins Act). A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. Previously sold individually. A Shopware Production. (32 minutes)

#38708 Physics - Ohm's Law (Run time 24 min.) DVD $89.95

This program investigates the application and limitations of Ohm's Law. Series circuits and parallel circuits are described. Using equivalent resistance, practical exercises are developed in the application of Ohm's Law to series circuits, parallel circuits, and circuits of greater complexity. Specific modules include Ohm's Law, Series Circuits, Series Calculations, Parallel Circuits, Parallel Calculations, and Complex Circuits. Correlates to all National CTE Organizational Standards (including the provisions of the Perkins Act). A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. A Shopware Production. (24 minutes)

#38709 Physics - Circuits (Run time 27 min.) DVD $89.95

This program presents both the theory of electric circuits and basic practical methods of managing circuits safely. The benefits and dangers of ground circuits are investigated, together with safety devices such as fuses and ground fault interrupters. The concept of electric resistance is introduced. Specific modules include Completing a Circuit, Fuses, Circuit Breakers, Ground Circuits, Ground Faults, Ground Fault Interrupters, Resistance, and Electrical Resistance. Correlates to all National CTE Organizational Standards (including the provisions of the Perkins Act). A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. A Shopware Production. (27 minutes)

#38728 Physics - Electricity and Magnetism (Run time 21 min.) DVD $89.95

This program traces the relationship between magnetism and electricity from the first accidental discovery of induced current. The concepts of electric and magnetic fields are introduced and their representation explored. The features of coils and solenoids are examined to develop the construction of practical electromechanical devices such as solenoid switches and electromagnets. Hand rules are introduced to help determine the alignment of currents and fields. Specific modules include Electric Fields, Magnetism, Magnetic Fields, Electromagnetism, Left-Hand Rule, Electric Coils, Solenoids, Solenoid Switches, and Electromagnets. Correlates to all National CTE Organizational Standards (including the provisions of the Perkins Act). A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. A Shopware Production. (21 minutes)

#6196 Energy Studies - Oil and Energy (Run time 32 min.) DVD $129.95

The world demand for energy by 2020 will be much greater than it is today. Can we meet the demand? All energy sources will be needed but oil will dominate. Production will move into deeper waters and more remote places, which means longer pipelines. Even if reserves are found, concerns for the environment may prevent their use. Sheikh Yamani, Chairman of the Centre for Global Energy Studies; the Chairman of Shell Oil; the Secretary General of OPEC; and experts from Chevron, the Worldwatch Institute, and Andersen Consulting, among others, consider energy technology, transportation, distribution, markets, and cartels. (32 minutes, color)

#30783 Energy Studies - Bottling the Sun: The Quest for Nuclear Fusion (Run time 29 min.) DVD $129.95

As fossil fuels near depletion, nuclear fusion promises unlimited power supplies. This program looks at recent developments in the quest to turn the mechanism of the sun into a viable energy source. The program chronicles the efforts of Alan Sykes and his team working on START, the first spherical Tokamak, at the Culham Research Facility in England. Dr. Martin Peng, who first conceived of a compact, spherical plasma reactor, is also interviewed and discusses the American offshoot of the START project, the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment. (30 minutes)

#33686 Energy Studies - The Wilderness (Run time 57 min.) DVD $129.95

As the industrialized world's desire for oil grows larger, so does the opposition from environmental groups intent on protecting the land. As demand increases, what restraints should be put on where oil companies drill? This documentary journey heads to the farthest reaches of Alaska and Canada, with a side trip to Washington, D.C. As the pressure for oil-and "energy security"-increases, fragile wilderness areas across the globe are being opened up to oil exploration and furious debate. Featured is Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. In Washington, those lobbying for and against tapping into ANWR's oil supply state their cases. The filmmakers also explore the oil sands in a pristine forest landscape in Alberta, Canada, the extraction site of what some call "the world's worst oil." (57 minutes)

#35025 Energy Studies - The Hydrogen Age: Energy Solutions for the 21st Century (Run time 57 min.) DVD $129.95

Leonard Nimoy narrates this wide-ranging documentary on hydrogen-based energy solutions in the United States and around the world-including systems that are fully operational as well as those currently in development. Visiting China, Germany, Iceland, and other countries, the program examines the PEM fuel cell and equipment that incorporates fuel cell technology, avoiding fossil fuel consumption and utilizing clean, renewable hydrogen. This dynamic and in-depth video gives special attention to energy advances that can help developing nations improve their economies while reducing pollution and environmental damage. (57 minutes)

#35295 Energy Studies - Super-Powered Earth (Run time 46 min.) DVD $129.95

Use this program to emphasize connections between the Earth's natural resources and the latest advances in technology and medicine. The video shows how research into the chemical makeup of geological and biological materials drives the innovation of energy systems, building techniques, and pharmaceuticals-and how these improvements can save lives and reduce stress on the environment. Resin coatings for giant wind turbines, wax-plaster mixtures for energy-efficient homes, and fungi-derived compounds that could lead to an osteoarthritis cure-the video features these and many other advances, suggesting a future in which humanity can both profit from and protect the Earth. (46 minutes)

#6232 Nuclear Studies - Nuclear Power Plant Safety: What's the Problem? (Run time 60 min.) DVD $129.95

The source of heat in nuclear reactors is not exothermic chemical reactions but exothermic nuclear reactions caused by neutron-nucleus collisions in controlled profusion. The dangers attached to this process and its radioactive products are well known and much publicized. Much less well known and appreciated are the means by which safety is assured. This illustrated lecture uses models that simulate reactor behavior to illustrate how safety is realized in practice. The approach to safety is developed with the aid of bench-top demonstrations of the main principles. Overall, the intent of the program is to emphasize the essential simplicity of nuclear power plant safety and the high level of safety that has been achieved in the past by the nuclear power industry. (60 minutes)

#6800 Nuclear Studies - Our Hiroshima (Run time 43 min.) DVD $129.95

Setsuko Nakamuro Thurlow, a relentless campaigner for peace, was 13 when the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, killing most of her family. Her vivid eyewitness account, combined with rare archival footage taken before and after the event, provides a comprehensive record of this pivotal episode in world history. A haunting music score, stark images, moving testimonies, and impassioned speeches make a compelling case for peace and nuclear sanity. The program also takes a hard look at the politics involved in developing and promoting the use of the bomb, and delves deeply into Canada's role in supplying uranium and scientists to the Manhattan Project. The ultimate conclusion of the program, in the words of physicist and pacifist Ursula Franklin, is that "there is no other way of surviving but peace." Includes graphic footage. (43 minutes)

#6965 Nuclear Studies - Meltdown (Run time 24 min.) DVD $129.95

At Chernobyl, the world came as close as it ever has to nuclear disaster. In this program, experts explore the technical causes behind three major nuclear accidents-Windscale in Britain, Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, and Chernobyl-and trace the path of human error leading up to them. We learn how official secrecy hinders damage-control efforts, and how extraordinary bravery on the part of emergency teams at Chernobyl averted a complete meltdown. Rare footage of the Chernobyl emergency teams in action provides a chilling glimpse into the heart of a nuclear tragedy. (24 minutes)

#34684 Nuclear Studies - Chernobyl Heart: The Dark Side of Nuclear Power (Run time 40 min.) DVD $129.95

The Chernobyl disaster began on April 26, 1986-and continues even now, given its profound effect on the region. With the debate over alternative energy sources as contentious as ever, this Academy Award-winning program offers a wealth of issues to consider; its reexamination of what happened at the Ukrainian reactor and its investigation into the dark side of nuclear power parallel the questions many Americans have regarding the storage of radioactive material and the overall safety of the nuclear industry. The video also highlights international medical programs created to battle the insidious residual effects of the Chernobyl tragedy. An HBO Production. (40 minutes)

#6231 Physics - Electron Waves Unveil the Microcosmos (Run time 60 min.) DVD $129.95

Most physicists are familiar with the famous experiment first performed by Michael Faraday in which iron filings, when sprinkled over a magnet, organize so that lines of force between the poles become apparent. This illustrated lecture by Akira Tonomura explains how, with the aid of holographic electron microscopy, we can actually "see" lines of force inside the magnet. These studies reveal a fascinating dynamic world in which the lines of force form vortices that hop and swirl, much like tornadoes do in the atmosphere, inside a superconductor. The amazing scenery of the microcosmos is unveiled by new state-of-the-art techniques that essentially sprinkle electrons (rather than iron filings) through the magnetic materials. (60 minutes)

#6854 Physics - Mechanics in Action (Run time 25 min.) DVD $129.95

This program uses computer graphics and live demonstrations to introduce Newton's laws and their application for solving problems in mechanics. Aristotle's model of force and motion is compared with Newton's. Amusement park rides, an antique car, and an expansion bridge are used to demonstrate the laws. (25 minutes)

#6855 Physics - Modeling Circular Motion (Run time 22 min.) DVD $129.95

This program follows up on the ideas and problems presented in Mechanics in Action by using an amusement park ride to model circular motion. The aim is to introduce and develop the idea of mathematical modeling and show how real-world problems can be solved by a modeling process. Beginning with a review of circular motion, the assumptions that must be made to simplify the problem and set up the circular motion model are examined in a classroom. Analysis is carried out through the use of computer graphics. The result is a thorough solution of the original problem. More suggestions are provided for teachers on further circular motion problems. (22 minutes)

#6856 Physics - Modeling Satellite Motion (Run time 18 min.) DVD $129.95

Using computer graphics, this program examines the problem of finding the radius of the orbit of a geosynchronous satellite using Newton's laws. A review of the mathematics required is given, along with a detailed solution to the problem that explains the modeling process. Optional teaching pause points are provided between each step. Suggestions for further problems associated with space flight include excellent NASA footage. (18 minutes)

#7669 Physics - The Power of Sound (Run time 29 min.) DVD $129.95

Sound waves can be used to soothe, to heal, or to pulverize. This fascinating program examines the power of sound as it is employed today-for everything from electroplating metal to breaking up kidney stones through lithotripsy. Detailed experiments illustrate each concept discussed, and relevant terms are concisely defined. A BBC Production. (29 minutes)

#7670 Physics - Why Planes Fly and Other Things (Run time 30 min.) DVD $129.95

This very technical program explains the principles of flight as achieved through lift, force, thrust, and the interactions between air pressure and wing design. Each concept can be used alone, or together, for classroom investigations, problem solving, and discussions and applications of the basic mathematical formulas involved. The information is also useful in the teaching of physical science, aerodynamics, mechanics, or the properties of matter. A BBC Production. (30 minutes)

#11324 Physics - Electrons at Play: A Century of Electrifying Discoveries (Run time 55 min.) DVD $129.95

This lively program presents the 1998 Faraday Lecture, which explains how the discovery of the electron by J. J. Thomson profoundly impacted both everyday life and scientific innovation. Combining stimulating on-stage experiments, computer graphics, interviews, and even a visit to CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, the program illustrates the principles of electrostatics and electromagnetism, examines the workings of the cathode ray tube and flat-screen TV, and inquires into the origin of the universe. A Wimshurst machine, a Tesla coil, a plasma globe, an electron microscope, and a particle accelerator are demonstrated. (55 minutes)

#32921 Physics - The Photoelectric Effect (Run time 35 min.) DVD $129.95

The story of the photoelectric effect is an ongoing one, from its discovery in 1887 to its use in a myriad of today's devices, such as cameras and cell phones. This program tells that story, charting the contributions of Hertz, Lenard, Planck, and Einstein, while making use of actual experiments, clever demonstrations, and formulas that describe each aspect of a crucial physics phenomenon. Topics include: Hertz's initial experiment; Lenard's investigations; evidence for a wave theory of light; problems with the wave theory; Planck's explanation of black body radiation; Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect; calculations of threshold frequency, cut-off potential, and work function; and real-world applications of the photo cell. (35 minutes)

#34117 Physics - Project Poltergeist: The Mystery of Neutrinos (Run time 50 min.) DVD $129.95

Project Poltergeist documents a 40-year endeavor to understand the neutrino, a fundamental particle in the structure of the present universe-and the early cosmos. After a concise introduction to Wolfgang Pauli's neutrino theory, the program focuses on John Bahcall's controversial struggle to detect accurate neutrino quantities and confirm the calculations of his colleague Ray Davis. Featuring the massive underground facilities used to measure neutrino influx, including the SNO laboratory at which the Davis/Bahcall collaboration triumphed, the program concludes with the cosmological implications of their findings. Original BBCW broadcast title: Project Poltergeist. (50 minutes)

#34658 Physics - Albert Einstein and the Theory of Everything (Run time 50 min.) DVD $129.95

Revolted by quantum theory, Einstein spent his final decades trying to create an all-encompassing mathematical model of the universe in which God indeed does not play dice. In this program, theoretical physicist Michio Kaku and experts from Cambridge, MIT, and elsewhere discuss Einstein's revolutionary time/space theories of 1905, the ascendancy of quantum mechanics and string theory, and Einstein's unswerving belief that the laws of nature-elegant and precise-must reveal a universe of divine predictability down to the last subatomic particle. A gripping dramatization of Einstein's last two days paints a vivid portrait of an idealistic scientist who never gave up seeking. Original BBCW broadcast title: Einstein's Unfinished Symphony. (50 minutes)

#35602 Physics - Einstein Made Relatively Easy (Run time 75 min.) DVD $129.95

Introducing EinSteinchen, an animated techno-Einstein who has a genius for explaining physics. In section one of this DVD, this likable know-it-all elucidates 12 essential topics in 90-second segments that are perfect for launching lectures or illustrating concepts. Section two departs from EinSteinchen's virtual world to show 12 cutting-edge applications or studies of Einsteinian physics in high-level mini-documentaries of two to five minutes in length. Section one's animated segments include... • Absolute and Relative: How size can appear to be relative through perspective • E=mc2: What exactly this famous formula means • The Discovery of Slowness: Relativity of time when traveling through space • As Fast as Light: Why light's velocity is constant, and why nothing can outpace it • Glowing Atoms-Stimulated Emissions: The role that excited atoms play in laser emissions • The Super-molecule-Bose-Einstein Condensation: Wave-like behavior of atoms at temperatures approaching absolute zero • The Spooky Long Distance Effect: Entanglement of spatially separated particles • Bent Space: How massive objects exerting enormous gravity bend space • Dancing Particles: How the forces that play a role in molecular interactions can be defined by formulas • Electricity from Light: How light energy can be converted into electrical energy • The Invisible Force: How gravity exerted by stars and planets keeps the universe in motion • Wormholes: Theoretically speaking, how travel through a wormhole could provide a shortcut across space Section two's mini-documentaries include... • Nuclear Medicine-A Formula and Its Results: E=mc2 as it relates to PET scans • Satellite Navigation-Einstein's Contribution to GALILEO: Compensating for time relativity in navigational satellites • The Speed of Light, Part 1-Light Researchers: A satellite experiment to test whether light really does propagate at the same speed in all directions • The Speed of Light, Part 2-Radar Satellite: TerraSAR-X, an X-band radar mapping satellite that relies on measurements based on the speed of light • The World's Fastest Flash: Stimulated emissions and history's first attosecond laser pulse • Juggling Ultra-cold Atoms: Implications of Bose-Einstein condensation waves on the possibility of making a quantum computer • Cloned Atoms through Teleportation: Implications of "spooky action at a distance" on the possibility of making a quantum computer • Cosmic Telescopes: Using gravitational lenses to search for undiscovered galaxies and dark matter • Racing Down Einstein's Paths: detecting gravity waves with laser interferometers • Organic Solar Cells: Applying the photoelectric effect to hydrocarbon polymers • Time Travel through Wormholes-Nothing More Than a Dream?: Speculations on wormholes and how, theoretically, to make use of them • The Search for a Theory of Everything: Hunting for evidence of the Higgs boson as a part of the search for Einstein's elusive Theory of Everything A Deutsche Welle Production. (60 minutes)

#36409 Physics - Day Time, Night Time: The Clock Within Us (Run time 50 min.) DVD $129.95

Where does our sense of time passing come from? Besides breathing and heartbeat, does the human body have another source of internal rhythm? As this program illustrates, scientists have discovered a stopwatch within the brain that regulates body chemistry and gives us our awareness of time. Host Michio Kaku interviews the geologist who first theorized the existence of the internal clock while in subterranean isolation; monitors an experiment that reveals the time distortion experienced during trauma; meets a father and daughter who, due to a rare genetic disorder, have body clocks that run too fast; and visits a captive gorilla with a rudimentary sense of time. Original BBC broadcast title: Daytime. (50 minutes)

#36410 Physics - Life Time: Death and Immortality (Run time 50 min.) DVD $129.95

Like most living things, humans are programmed to die. Can science change that? This film examines mechanisms within our bodies that eventually wind down and stop, and shows how medicine may one day find a method for reversing the biological effects of time. Host Michio Kaku interviews Nobel Prize-winning biochemist Sir Paul Nurse, who has spent a lifetime analyzing cellular division and other processes. The program also studies clues to immortality existing in other organisms-including sea urchins that live far longer than expected and display no signs of aging, and the Methuselah Tree, a nearly 5,000-year-old pine in California that still produces cones. Original BBC broadcast title: Lifetime. (50 minutes)

#35992 Energy Studies - The Sun (Run time 60 min.) DVD $149.95

Solar science has entered a golden age. Exploring discoveries made possible through new orbital and ground-based technology, this program offers fascinating conclusions concerning the past, present, and future of the star that gives our planet life. Featuring images from the SOHO and TRACE satellites as well as the Swedish solar telescope on Las Palmas, the program presents analysis of the inferno at the Sun's core and the magnetic chaos of its surface-along with views of the heliosphere, which for years could only be observed during eclipses. The program also considers whether or not the Sun's power can be harnessed to meet escalating global energy needs. A BBCW Production. (60 minutes)

#39099 Energy Studies - The Kingdom Built on Oil: Saudi Arabia's Uncertain Future (Run time 44 min.) DVD $149.95

An exclusive look inside a country that frequently resists scrutiny, this CNBC documentary provides a detailed analysis of Saudi Arabia's role-and future-as the world's largest oil producer. Focusing on the inner workings of the kingdom's government, as well as the influence and practices of corporate powerhouse Saudi Aramco, the program reveals economic predicaments faced by Saudi leaders and examines differing points of view concerning Aramco's data on projected oil supplies. Commentary comes from industry experts and Saudi officials-including analyst Matt Simmons and SEER president Michael Lynch; Saudi Aramco Senior Vice-President Abd Allah Al-Saif; and the country's oil minister, Ali al Naimi, who rarely grants interviews. Not available in French-speaking Canada. Original CNBC broadcast title: The Kingdom Built on Oil. (44 minutes)

#2410 Physics - Climate Out of Control (Run time 28 min.) DVD $149.95

Global warming. The Greenhouse Effect. Deadly tan. These concepts have become part of our growing awareness of what the immediate future portends. This program looks at the effect of these global trends on a specific area-New England-to explain what the trends are, what their cause is, and what their effects will be: a rising sea level and flooded coastline; drought; power shortages; a depleted upper ozone layer creating "the perfect climate for skin cancers" while increased ozone at ground level poses a different menu of health threats. The program looks at some of the measures that are being taken, and further measures that must urgently be taken, in order to deal with this impending disaster. (28 minutes)

#6143 Physics - The Atom Revealed (Run time 50 min.) DVD $149.95

This program introduces the concept of "nanospace" or micro-space, and reviews over 380 years of research into microscopy. Compelling photography of microscopic organisms fascinates us, and a visual scale, the "nano-gate," is introduced that helps to explain the concept of an object magnified a billion times its normal size. We journey into the atomic structure of the substances that make up our world and view atoms through the largest electron microscope ever built. The program concludes with the first view of the atom 20 years ago, and hints at things to come with the recent ability to "write" with atoms. (50 minutes)

#6144 Physics - Unlocking the Secrets of Life (Run time 50 min.) DVD $149.95

In this program, the chemical structures of life open up to the camera, photographed here often for the first time. Intricate body structures of microorganisms, insects, and lizards are investigated via exquisite electromagnetic photography. The atomic structure of living things is revealed and we see how DNA governs the manufacture and production of proteins, and we draw closer to the mystery of life. Naturally occurring biomotors found throughout the microscopic world and the living cell, a natural computer, offer a conceptual link to the man-made micro-motors and micro-computers that are built today. (50 minutes)

#6145 Physics - Molecular Machines Go to Work (Run time 50 min.) DVD $149.95

This program explores human engineering of the microscopic world. We visit the world's great research universities and explore cutting-edge advances in micro-engineering that go far beyond the miniaturization used to create semiconductors. Parallels are drawn between the smallest man-made machines and the natural motors of viruses and proteins to illustrate how nature's architecture is corollary to man's. The program views atoms, observes how researchers are now able to move them, and shows how molecular machines are theoretically possible and may not be far away. (50 minutes)

#12005 Physics - The Uncertainty Principle: Making of an American Scientist (Run time 54 min.) DVD $149.95

Trying to create a device that can measure the flow of heat at a quantum level, postdoctoral student Keith Schwab confronts the uncertainty principle not only in physics but in life as well. This program follows the arduous quest of a charismatic young physicist and the personal price of his dedication to a long-term goal. Working at Caltech with his mentor, Professor Michael Roukes, Keith sees how his ambitious experiment is less technical than artistic, requiring intuition, courage, vision, sacrifice, and the ability to cope with constant failure. Interviews with his professors and fellow Ph.D. students complete this engaging story of what it means to pursue a career in physics. (54 minutes)

#30599 Physics - Photonics: The Revolution in Communications (Run time 29 min.) DVD $149.95

This program examines the use of lasers and optical fibers as a means of providing high-bandwidth communications. The underlying principles of physics are thoroughly explained, the chemical and engineering challenges faced in providing improved data transfer are explored, and examples of applied photonics-both present and future-are examined. Expert commentary and 3-D computer animations enhance the program. (31 minutes)

#32211 Physics - Einstein's Dream (Run time 57 min.) DVD $149.95

This program focuses on efforts to complete Einstein's quest for a grand unifying theory that will explain all of the forces of nature in the same terms. Will string theory provide the key? Mathematical physicist Nathan Seiberg explains his research on string theory in various dimensions and on particle physics; Edward Witten, named one of the 25 most influential Americans by Time magazine, defines M theory; and theoretical physicist Juan Maldacena suggests a way to unite quantum mechanics and general relativity. A contradictory view of string theory is delivered with genial skepticism by Freeman Dyson. Segments highlighting Einstein's research are also included. (57 minutes)

#32683 Physics - Parallel Universes (Run time 50 min.) DVD $149.95

Is M theory Einstein's elusive "theory of everything"? In this program, visionary physicists Neil Turok, of Cambridge University; Burt Ovrut, of the University of Pennsylvania; Paul Steinhardt, of Princeton University; and others theorize on a revolutionary cosmology that explains what happened at the Big Bang-and in the process posit a continuum in which our universe is but one bubble among an infinite number. The development of string theory, the contributions of string and supergravity theories to M theory, the relative weakness of gravity, and parallel universe-creating collisions between membranes in the eleventh dimension are discussed. A BBCW Production. (50 minutes)

#35291 Physics - The Copenhagen Interpretation: Quantum Physics vs. Relativity (Run time 59 min.) DVD $149.95

This program provides a substantive overview of the theoretical dispute between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, a controversy that still resonates today. Bohr's Copenhagen Interpretation-that measurement of phenomena creates a set of possible outcomes and that unobserved phenomena are meaningless-is thoroughly explained in conjunction with Einstein's cause-and-effect approach. Using clever animation, archival footage, and interviews with leading physicists, the video illustrates Bohr's double-slit experiment, the EPR paradox, and modern demonstrations of entanglement, composing an effective summary of quantum principles and the problematic friendship of two towering intellects. (59 minutes)

#36387 Physics - The Wave Nature of Light (Run time 76 min.) DVD $149.95

Is light composed of waves or particles? This collection of 17 computer-animated video modules explores the wave model of light, from its earliest roots to our modern understanding of electromagnetism. Empedocles' belief that light streams from the eye, Aristotle's conception of light as a disturbance in ether, and Euclid's mathematical, ray-centered paradigms are all explored. The Cartesian sine wave model, Huygens' principle of bending wave fronts, the electromagnetic spectrum, and aspects of particle theory are also presented, along with overviews of diffraction, interference, polarization, and dispersion, and an explanation of Young's double-slit experiment. (76 minutes)

#36388 Physics - The Special Theory of Relativity (Run time 63 min.) DVD $149.95

How did 20th-century physics change long-held notions of light's makeup and behavior? This group of 12 concise computer-animated videos illustrates Einstein's monumental contributions to the study of light. Showing how rudimentary ideas of material wave motion yielded to more advanced concepts of electromagnetic waves, the program details Einstein's conclusions about the speed of light and his conception of time-which, given his findings on mass and energy, proceeds according to variable frames of reference. Relativistic thought experiments, conveyed through helpful animation, demonstrate simultaneity, time dilation, length contraction, and relativistic mass. (63 minutes)

#36389 Physics - The Quantum Leap: Photons and Light Particles (Run time 46 min.) DVD $149.95

Exploring the antithesis of the wave model, this album of eight computer-animated video segments looks at the particle approach to studying light. Black-body radiation, Planck's constant, the Photoelectric Effect, and the work of James Clerk Maxwell are presented as forerunners to Einstein's concept of photon frequency. Examples of a slope intercept graph and a revised double-slit experiment using light-sensitive paper segue to an illustration of the Compton Effect, establishing that light consists of a stream of particles. De Broglie's contributions introduce wave-particle duality-which some might consider a muddy solution, although it represents the best that current science can do. (46 minutes)

#36390 Physics - Geometric Optics: Reflection (Run time 57 min.) DVD $149.95

What does a mirror tell us about light? This cluster of 11 computer-animated video units delves into one aspect of light's behavior-reflection. Euclid's geometric optics and his findings on the perception of distance and perspective lead to a discussion of the Law of Reflection-linking angle of incidence with angle of reflection-and the concepts of absorption, transmission, and diffuse reflection. The principles involved with plane, concave, and convex mirrors are explained, including vertex, principle axis, center of curvature, radius of curvature, and virtual image. A group of "mirror equations" show how an object's location can be determined using the laws of reflection. (56 minutes)

#36391 Physics - Geometric Optics: Refraction (Run time 70 min.) DVD $149.95

The speed of light is constant in a vacuum-but what about in the everyday world? This collection of 23 computer-animated video shorts examines the behavior of light as it passes through physical substances. Outlining Ptolemy's Law of Refraction and the concept of angle of incidence, the program examines light's motion through air, water, glass, and other media. Snell's Law, highlighting the importance of a refractive index, is explored, along with displacement, deviation, dispersion, and the role of refraction in fiber optics. Lens types including bi-convex, convex meniscus, plano-convex, and concave models are studied, in addition to telescopes, magnifying glasses, and the human eye. (70 minutes)

#10698 Energy Studies - Energy: Nature's Power Source (Run time min.) DVD $159.9

Energy is the capacity to produce power. Where does it come from, and how is it used? This illuminating two-part series provides a solid grounding in the basics of potential and kinetic energy while promoting a healthy awareness of the pros and cons associated with energy generation. The applications of energy to industrial, commercial, residential, and transportation needs are presented, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the various sources of renewable and exhaustible energy, the impact of energy generation on the environment, estimates of the world's remaining supplies of energy-producing materials, and the importance of conservation. A Meridian Production. 2-part series, 17-18 minutes each.

#9133 Physics - F = ma: Physical Science Concepts (Run time min.) DVD $179.85

This engaging three-part series defines the elements of Newton's Second Law-force, mass, and acceleration-plus related topics such as velocity and inertia; demonstrates them using basic calculations; and applies them in real-world examples. Video, animation, graphics, and narration combine to make this an excellent introduction to this fundamental law of physics. Correlates to the National Science Education Standards developed by the National Academies of Science and Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy from the American Association for the Advancement of Science. A Cambridge Educational Production. 3-part series, 9-12 minutes each.

#5116 Physics - The Uses of Electricity: The Good, the Bad, and the Indefensible (Run time min.) DVD $269.85

Electricity can be a force for good or for bad; it can also be used for purposes which many consider indefensible. This trilogy of programs examines how electricity is being used in new ways to help people; the harmful effects it can have on those who live or work close to high voltage equipment; and the devastation it might cause if used as a weapon. 3-part series, 56 minutes each.

#5896 Physics - Measure for Measure (Run time min.) DVD $359.8

This exciting series takes a fascinating look at our obsession with measurement. Ever since the dawn of civilization, humans have attempted to quantify the world, categorizing everything. These programs use a humorous, fast-paced approach to provide a historical explanation for how different measurements came about. 4-part series, 30 minutes each.

#6142 Physics - The Ultra-Microscopic World (Run time min.) DVD $449.85

Using advanced photographic techniques developed specifically for this series, these programs explore the frontiers of research into the microscopic world. The world's strongest microscopes focus on ever smaller details until a seemingly unlimited succession of worlds within worlds unfolds, each teeming with life. The series involves many disciplines. It first examines microscopic biology and then peers ever further into the chemical, molecular, and finally the atomic components of life. Leading scientists from around the world are interviewed, and we learn how microscopic research in their labs is changing the fields of chemistry, biology, physics, and engineering. 3-part series, 50 minutes each.

#36408 Physics - Time: The Story of Existence (Run time min.) DVD $519.8

Is time an illusion created within our minds? Or is it a dimension of the physical universe? Either way, time largely defines the human experience. In this four-part series, string field theory trailblazer Michio Kaku explores inner and outer worlds in search of time's essence and implications. Each program takes on a specific aspect of time: personal perception of it, defiance of it through the scientific search for immortality, our view of it through the scope of Earth's past, and the panorama of cosmological time. Original BBCW broadcast title: Time. 4-part series, 50 minutes each.

#11745 Physics - Physics: The Standard Deviants(r) Core Curriculum (Run time min.) DVD $599.95

This creative ten-part set, adapted from the popular series developed for students to enhance their test-taking skills, is designed to reduce the gravity of physics by combining serious academic content with a humorous presentation style. Each program skillfully employs elements such as catchy mnemonics, high-tech computer graphics, and entertaining vignettes to boost retention and confidence while driving home core concepts through concise explanations and engaging examples. Modules include: • Numbers, Units, Scalars, and Vectors • One-Dimensional Kinematics • Projectile Motion • Circular and Rotational Motion • Linear Momentum and Newton's Laws of Motion • Friction, Work, and Energy • Gravitation • Harmonic Motion and Waves • Heat • Thermodynamics Joining the Standard Deviants Academic Team in the creation of this set are Edward Finn, Ph.D., of Georgetown University, and Barry Berman, Ph.D., of George Washington University. Correlates to all applicable state and national standards. A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. (4 hours)

#1096 Physics - Experiment: Physics (Run time min.) DVD $699.3

This series was developed by physics instructors to demonstrate experiments that are too difficult, too expensive, or too impractical to perform in a classroom laboratory. Some of the programs make use of equipment not readily available to instructors; others demonstrate principles that are difficult, too dangerous, or impossible to illustrate in a classroom setting.

#10277 Physics - Physics: The Standard Deviants(r) Core Curriculum (Run time min.) DVD $699.5

This creative ten-part series, adapted from the popular series developed for students to enhance their test-taking skills, is designed to reduce the gravity of physics by combining serious academic content with a humorous presentation style. Each program skillfully employs elements such as catchy mnemonics, high-tech computer graphics, and entertaining vignettes to boost retention and confidence while driving home core concepts through concise explanations and engaging examples. Joining the Standard Deviants Academic Team in the creation of this series are Edward Finn, Ph.D., of Georgetown University, and Barry Berman, Ph.D., of George Washington University. Correlates to all applicable state and national standards. A viewable/printable instructor's guide is available online. 10-part series, 17-34 minutes each.

#2520 Physics - The Subject of Matter (Run time min.) DVD $719.6

This exceptional compendium of 20th-century physics brings together the top scientists at the cutting edge of their science-Roger Penrose, Benoit Mandelbrot, Murray Gell-Mann, Stephen Hawking-as well as archival footage of the earlier physicists, from Mach to Bohr to Feynman. With the simplicity engendered by truly staggering intelligence, they make understandable the most complex theories, aided by blackboard illustrations and computer graphics. From the indefinably small to the indefinably large, from chaos to organization, from void to living matter, these programs provide an index and a clear insight into the state of physics in the 1990s.8-part series, 26 minutes each.

#36386 Physics - Light: Everything You Need to Know (Run time min.) DVD $749.75

The study of light presents a multitude of difficult abstractions. This five-part series provides concrete ways to understand those ideas and their history. Using sophisticated 3-D animation, each episode in the series contains several short video modules that focus on a particular concept and how it has altered the physics of light. Every module clearly distills the complexity of its subject for use in college-level and advanced high-school course work, and can be deployed either as a stand-alone presentation or as part of the overall episode. 5-part series, 46-76 minutes each.

#6842 Physics - Investigations in Physics: Experiments and Observations (Run time min.) DVD $809.55

Designed for basic physics labs, this series offers an extensive collection of demonstrations and experiments essential to any core physics curriculum. Each program features three related lessons that are supported by table-top close-ups, computer graphics and animation, re-creations of famous experiments using replicas of original equipment, and simple, concise narration. Some lessons incorporate sophisticated equipment not normally found in schools. Selected demonstrations take viewers to exotic sites to dramatically illustrate fundamental physics principles. 9-part series, 30 minutes each.

#1916 Physics - Physics in Action (Run time min.) DVD $899.5

This series comprises an anthology of demonstrations and quantitative experiments taught in introductory physical science. The experiments selected are ones which are difficult or impossible to perform in most school laboratories. The quantitative experiments are designed to permit students to record data from the screen and perform their own calculations. The programs also contain illustrations of physics principles at work in industry, business, and at home. 10 part series, 20 minutes each.

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