##### Product Description:

**#3065 History of Math - Tangents (Run time 12 min.) DVD** $39.95

The right-angled triangle (some properties and common notation). Definition and derivation of the tangent ratio. Calculation of a side and an angle using the tangent ratio of acute angles. Definition and use of the angle of elevation. (12 minutes)

**#3066 History of Math - Sines and Cosines (Run time 9 min.) DVD** $39.95

Introduction to the sine ratio. Calculation of a side or an angle of a right-angled triangle. The angle of depression. Definition and use of the cosine ratio. (9 minutes)

**#3067 History of Math - Straight Line Graphs (Run time 11 min.) DVD** $39.95

How to plot and read Cartesian coordinates. Properties of straight line graphs in two dimensions. Interpretation and use of graphs. Drawing graphs from given data and functions. Introduction to and calculation of the gradient. The interpretation of M and C from the graph of Y = MX + C. (11 minutes)

**#3068 History of Math - Transformations (Run time 15 min.) DVD** $39.95

The language and properties of transformations. The definitions of reflection, rotation, translation, and enlargement and their effects on area, angle, and direction. (15 minutes)

**#3069 History of Math - Ratios, Scales, and Bearings (Run time 10 min.) DVD** $39.95

Definition of ratio. Elementary ideas and notation. Reducing a ratio to its simplest form. Use and types of map scales. Three figure bearings and their use. (10 minutes)

**#3070 History of Math - Solids (Run time 17 min.) DVD** $39.95

The shape, properties, and vocabulary of the cube, cuboid, cylinder, sphere, prism, pyramid, and cone. Formulas for their volumes and surface areas and how they are derived. (17 minutes)

**#3071 History of Math - Averages (Run time 7 min.) DVD** $39.95

The calculation of the mean and the location of the mode and median. Situations in which they might be used, and why incorrect use may lead to misunderstanding. (7 minutes)

**#3072 History of Math - Probability (Run time 13 min.) DVD** $39.95

Calculating basic probabilities of one or more events. Examples of independent and dependent probabilities. Drawing and using tree diagrams. (13 minutes)

**#8734 History of Math - Graphs (Run time 20 min.) DVD** $59.95

This video describes how to read, interpret, and evaluate data displayed in bar graphs, line graphs, and pie charts. Dramatized segments and computer animations illustrate ways to determine the financial advantages of a staggered breeding schedule at a dairy farm; allocate rack space in a CD store, based on regional and local sales figures; and decide whether an athlete's physical characteristics indicate competition as a sprinter or as a distance runner. (20 minutes)

**#8736 History of Math - Logical Reasoning (Run time 20 min.) DVD** $59.95

This video describes how to recognize and apply inductive and deductive reasoning. Dramatized segments and computer animations involve determining a crime suspect's guilt or innocence based on clues from a series of convenience store robberies; finding a strategy for winning a game played with coins; and matching students to the sports or musical instruments they play as a part of a puzzle. (20 minutes)

**#8737 History of Math - Measurement (Run time 20 min.) DVD** $59.95

This video describes how to estimate costs of products and services, determine the circumference of an object and its effect on motion, and calculate area and volume. Dramatized segments and computer animations illustrate ways to use measurements taken from blueprints to estimate construction costs; determine tire sizes, which affect vehicle speed; and calculate a running track's circumference to fairly stagger the start lines. (20 minutes)

**#8739 History of Math - Positive and Negative Numbers (Run time 20 min.) DVD** $59.95

This video describes how to perform computations using positive and negative numbers, interpret the results, and determine the break-even point in a business situation. Dramatized segments and computer animations illustrate why bridges require expansion joints; how to track the rushing yardage of a high school football player; and how to adjust profit and debt to bring a start-up lawn-care business into the black. (20 minutes)

**#8741 History of Math - Ratios (Run time 20 min.) DVD** $59.95

This video describes how to identify and form equivalent ratios and ratio tables, express ratios as both fractions and decimals, and interpret map scales to calculate distances. Dramatized segments and computer animations show ways to determine which combinations of a mountain bike's gears provide the most power and speed; custom-design a roof at a construction office to create a high attic ceiling; and interpret a map to decide if there is enough time to drive the distance to a rock concert. (20 minutes)

**#8742 History of Math - Percentages (Run time 20 min.) DVD** $59.95

This video describes how to calculate with percentages and interpret and use percentage figures that appear in diagrams and charts. Dramatized segments and computer animations include calculating payroll deductions; figuring out the marked-down price of sale items at the mall; analyzing Corvette buying trends and statistics at a plant and a showroom; and deciding which type of bank CD will maximize return on investment. (20 minutes)

**#8743 History of Math - Area and Volume (Run time 20 min.) DVD** $59.95

This video describes how to calculate the area of rectangles and other shapes-both geometrical and irregular-and how to determine the volume of a rectangular solid. Dramatized segments and computer animations focus on calculating lawn dimensions at a sod farm; creatively redesigning a cereal box while retaining the original volume; and using the Pythagorean Theorem to work out the coverage area for a kitchen floor being tiled diagonally. (20 minutes)

**#8745 History of Math - Coordinates (Run time 20 min.) DVD** $59.95

This video describes how to identify points, plot ordered pairs on a graph, use map coordinates to find locations, and apply graphical break-even analysis to linear functions. Dramatized segments and computer animations illustrate ways to describe positions on a game board by using coordinates; program an industrial robot to assemble TVs in a factory; use a road map while traveling; and evaluate the impact of franchise costs and product prices on profit at a frozen yogurt bar company. (20 minutes)

**#10224 History of Math - Geometry Basics (Run time 19 min.) DVD** $59.95

This program presents the building blocks that every student of geometry needs to understand. Topics addressed include inductive and deductive reasoning; terminology such as points, lines, planes, and space; six core postulates; five essential theorems; and how to express theorems in their statement, converse, inverse, contrapositive, and biconditional forms. (19 minutes)

**#10225 History of Math - Angles (Run time 14 min.) DVD** $59.95

What is a vertex? And how does algebra figure into geometry? This program examines all things angular, including acute, right, obtuse, straight, adjacent, complementary, supplementary, and vertical angles. Four theorems are also introduced, along with the reflexive, substitution, and transitive properties. A proof of the congruency of vertical angles is performed as well. (14 minutes)

**#10226 History of Math - Parallel Lines and Angles (Run time 15 min.) DVD** $59.95

Euclid may not have invented parallel lines, but he was probably the first to recognize their implications. This program wraps up the topic of angles by introducing the Parallel Postulate and the Corresponding Angle Postulate, along with three theorems for dealing with alternate interior, alternate exterior, and same-side interior angles. Three proofs are also included. (15 minutes)

**#10227 History of Math - Introduction to Triangles (Run time 22 min.) DVD** $59.95

Can a used-car salesman introduce the subject of triangles? One does in this program, which begins with the fundamentals, including how to classify triangles both by their sides and by their angles. In addition, two theorems are introduced and proved, and four corollaries are presented. Three problems are worked out as well, using the Side-Side-Side, Side-Angle-Side, and Angle-Side-Angle Postulates. (22 minutes)

**#10228 History of Math - Using Congruent Triangles and Isosceles and Right Triangle Theorems (Run time 13 min.) DVD** $59.95

Is the converse of a right triangle a wrong triangle? This program sets the record straight, using the CPCTC definition-Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles are Congruent-and right triangles to prove congruency of diverse elements of parallelograms and isosceles triangles. The Angle-Angle-Side and Hypotenuse-Leg Theorems are also presented. (13 minutes)

**#10229 History of Math - Quadrilaterals and Other Polygons (Run time 12 min.) DVD** $59.95

In this program, an explorer, a secret agent, and other experts take a look at the wide spectrum of polygons, ranging from triangles to n-gons. An examination of the general properties of polygons, including a discussion of concave and convex regions, paves the way for understanding the quadrilateral. Two theorems are also introduced, and a proof that opposite sides of a parallelogram are congruent is carried out as well. (12 minutes)

**#10230 History of Math - Similar Triangles (Run time 13 min.) DVD** $59.95

If Pam and a telephone pole are each casting a shadow, how can the height of the pole be determined indirectly? This program keeps the subject of similar triangles in proportion as it describes the Angle-Angle Similarity Postulate and the Side-Angle-Side and Side-Side-Side Similarity Theorems. A proof demonstrating both the definition of proportional sides and the definition of similar triangles is also included. (13 minutes)

**#10231 History of Math - Right Triangles and the Pythagorean Theorem (Run time 16 min.) DVD** $59.95

Who is Pythagoras, and why is he so important to geometry? Using a pithy discussion of altitudes and how to solve for the side lengths of right triangles-plus two proofs involving an altitude drawn in a right triangle-this program neatly sets the stage for the debut of the Pythagorean Theorem. An appraisal of the properties of the 45-45-90 and 30-60-90 triangles rounds out the program. (16 minutes)

**#10232 History of Math - Units, Perimeter, Circumference, and Area (Run time 20 min.) DVD** $59.95

When it comes to measuring flat shapes, geometry generously provides a formula for every occasion. This program begins with an overview of how to convert English and metric units of measurement. Next, finding the perimeter of polygons is illustrated, after which a tour of Circleville provides a snapshot summary of circumference and pi. Finally, the Area Congruence and Area Addition Postulates are revealed, along with formulas for the area of squares, rectangles, parallelograms, triangles, trapezoids, and circles. (20 minutes)

**#10233 History of Math - Surface Area and Volume (Run time 16 min.) DVD** $59.95

Whether wallpapering a footlocker or filling a cylinder with corncobs, a knowledge of three-dimensional shapes is essential. This program demystifies the subjects of surface area and volume by sharing solid information backed up by the surface area formulas for right cylinders and spheres and the volume formulas for right prisms, cylinders, and spheres. (16 minutes)

**#7977 Applied Math - Understanding Calculators (Run time 32 min.) DVD** $69.95

Beginning with the history of calculators, this live-action program presents interviews in which professionals discuss how they use calculators. The various features of a calculator are illustrated, and on-screen examples demonstrate the use of basic functions. More complicated calculations, such as percentages and square roots, are demonstrated, along with the functions of memory and constants. A Cambridge Educational Production. (30 minutes)

**#20325 Applied Math - Reading a Ruler: English and Metric Measurements (Run time 19 min.) DVD** $69.95

In the first lesson, the different forms of English measurement are discussed and displayed as they would appear on a ruler. The viewer also learns how to understand fractions when measuring and how to find exact measurements using a ruler. The second lesson deals with the metric system by introducing the meter and other metric measurements. Viewers learn how to read a meter stick, and common abbreviations of metric measurements are discussed. Viewers also learn how to convert measurements using the decimal point. A Shopware Production. (18 minutes)

**#25685 Applied Math - Introduction to Math in Technology (Run time 12 min.) DVD** $69.95

Introduction to Math in Technology is an eleven-minute video which is part of the series, Math in Technology. "But why do I need math?" Now, using this series, give students a clear, definitive, and logical answer. Math is necessary to get the job done in most technical fields, including auto mechanics, electricity/electronics, and the building trades. Each video shows real-life problem situations solved by using practical math and actual computations on the screen. Use Introduction to Math in Technology as an overview and then progress to specific topics. At last...a program to help your students succeed in the world of technical math. (11 min.) A Meridian Production.

**#25843 Applied Math - Math in Automotive Technology (Run time 11 min.) DVD** $69.95

Math in Automotive Technology is an eleven-minute video which is part of the series, Math in Technology. "But why do I need math?" Now, using this series, give students a clear, definitive, and logical answer. Math is necessary to get the job done in most technical fields, including auto mechanics, electricity/electronics, and the building trades. Each video shows real-life problem situations solved by using practical math and actual computations on the screen. Use Introduction to Math in Technology as an overview and then progress to specific topics. At last...a program to help your students succeed in the world of technical math. (11 min.) A Meridian Production.

**#25844 Applied Math - Math in Construction Technology (Run time 10 min.) DVD** $69.95

In this dramatized program, a contractor trainee prepares an exterior painting estimate for a house that has been vandalized by taking exact measurements, calculating square footage using geometry, adding cost of materials, and multiplying labor costs per hour. Afterward, a group of teens gets ready to build a bike repair shed by reading blueprints, calculating floor area, and squaring the shop's footprint by equalizing the floor's diagonal measurements. A Meridian Production. (10 minutes)

**#25845 Applied Math - Math in Electrical Technology (Run time 12 min.) DVD** $69.95

Math in Electrical Technology is an eleven-minute video which is part of the series, Math in Technology. "But why do I need math?" Now, using this series, give students a clear, definitive, and logical answer. Math is necessary to get the job done in most technical fields, including auto mechanics, electricity/electronics, and the building trades. Each video shows real-life problem situations solved by using practical math and actual computations on the screen. Use Introduction to Math in Technology as an overview and then progress to specific topics. At last...a program to help your students succeed in the world of technical math. (11 min.) A Meridian Production.

**#10253 Statistics - Introduction to Statistics and the Relative Frequency Histogram (Run time 30 min.) DVD** $69.95

After concisely defining the purpose of statistics, section one of this program uses Five-Card Charlie's Fuzzy Dice Cola to examine the concepts of population and sampling and to catalogue the elements of statistical problems. In section two, data derived from the National Martyr Competition provides an opportunity to set up a relative frequency histogram, which involves classes and their widths, boundaries, frequencies, and relative frequencies. (30 minutes)

**#10254 Statistics - Other Graphical Methods and Numerical Methods (Run time 21 min.) DVD** $69.95

A knowledge of graphing is essential to visualizing data-and sometimes leads to free nachos. Moving beyond the relative frequency histogram, this program studies the distribution curve and the stem-and-leaf display. Then, after distinguishing between statistics and parameters, the program thoroughly investigates measures of central tendency: the mean of samples and populations, the median, and the mode. (21 minutes)

**#10255 Statistics - Measures of Variability and Relative Standing (Run time 29 min.) DVD** $69.95

In this program, grumpy old men and competitive statistics students serve as samples for working with two more types of numerical representation: variability and relative standing. Section one wrestles with range, deviation, variance, and standard deviation in detail and tackles the Empirical Rule, while section two dives into Z-scores, outliers, and percentiles. (29 minutes)

**#10256 Statistics - Probability (Run time 27 min.) DVD** $69.95

What are the odds that a casino card dealer and a pair of Simon and Garfunkel wannabes know something about probability? This program begins by defining probability and sampling, experiments, simple and compound events, and sample space. Next, the formula for finding probability is analyzed, along with the composition of simple and compound events, mutually exclusive events, and complements of events. Finally, dependent and independent conditional events are discussed. (27 minutes)

**#10257 Statistics - Random Variables (Run time 17 min.) DVD** $69.95

"Maternity Glenda" is expecting twins. What, then, is the expected number of female babies? After distinguishing between qualitative and quantitative random variables, this program considers the relationship between probability distributions and histograms, distribution curves, little x and big X, and expected values. Deviation, variance, and standard deviation for probability distributions are also addressed. (17 minutes)

**#10258 Statistics - Binomial Probability Distribution (Run time 21 min.) DVD** $69.95

What is the binomial probability that Mickey, a lounge lizard, will get a phone number? After presenting the five characteristics of binomial probability distribution and explaining the binomial probability formula-including a review of factorials-this program examines the mean, deviation, variation, and standard deviation of a binomial probability distribution. (21 minutes)

**#10259 Statistics - Poisson Probability Distribution and the Urn Model (Run time 22 min.) DVD** $69.95

In this program, an evil genius named Emily and other experts reveal two more probability distributions for discrete random variables. First, the Poisson approximation to the binomial and its use in the Poisson Probability Formula are spotlighted, along with the natural logarithm constant. Then, the Urn Model is appraised, in which sampling both with and without replacement is demonstrated. (22 minutes)

**#10260 Statistics - Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables (Run time 17 min.) DVD** $69.95

Using examples drawn from a number of sources-including "Statisticalisimo," the game show of statistics-this program outlines the properties of a normal probability distribution and takes a look at the mean, the standard deviation, the Z-score, and the Z-score table. The properties of a uniform distribution are enumerated as well, along with how to calculate the mean and the standard deviation. Also, a distinction is made between f(x) and p(x). (17 minutes)

**#10261 Statistics - Sampling Distributions and Large Samples (Run time 26 min.) DVD** $69.95

In this program, data derived from a bully convention helps illustrate how statisticians ensure statistical reliability. After describing reliability testing, the mean of a sampling distribution, the Central Limit Theorem, and the standard error of the mean, the focus shifts to point and interval estimators. The subject of confidence intervals-including confidence coefficients, errors of estimation, and upper and lower limits-concludes the program. (26 minutes)

**#10262 Statistics - Hypothesis Testing, Types of Error, and Small Samples (Run time 37 min.) DVD** $69.95

In this program, a helpful bunch of bullies comes to grips with null and alternate hypotheses, the significance level, the test statistic, acceptance and rejection regions, one- and two-tailed tests, and Type I and Type II errors. The essentials of dealing with small samples-including t-distribution, the t-Value Formula, and degrees of freedom-are also tackled. (37 minutes)

**#35899 Applied Math - Measurement: The Long and the Short of It (Run time 16 min.) DVD** $89.95

Emphasizing hands-on practice, this program is an excellent tool for introducing the basics of linear measurement: its history, terminology, systems, and practical applications. Using both customary and metric rulers, Measurement: The Long and the Short of It will guide your students through the process of taking measurements, performing related calculations using whole numbers and fractions, and arriving at answers they can feel confident with. By the time the program is over, students will understand exactly what measurement is-and why it's relevant to their lives. Includes a workbook. Correlates to all applicable state and national standards. A Shopware Production. Recommended for middle school, high school, and vocational/technical school. (16 minutes)

**#10152 Calculus - Functions and Limits (Run time 24 min.) DVD** $89.95

What is calculus, anyway, and how is it used? Answers to these and other questions can be found in section one of this program, along with a concise review of graphing and functions. Section two posits the intuitive definition of limits and follows up with numerous examples to demonstrate how to find a limit through substitution, factoring, and using conjugates. (24 minutes)

**#10153 Calculus - One-Sided Limits and Limits Involving Infinity (Run time 32 min.) DVD** $89.95

Are one-sided limits unfair? And how does infinity fit into the equation? This program provides the requisite rules and notations for working with left- and right-hand limits. Limits involving infinity are also described, highlighting the concepts of increasing and decreasing without bound and vertical and horizontal asymptotes. Determining limits by inspection is covered as well. (32 minutes)

**#10154 Calculus - Continuity and Differentiability (Run time 31 min.) DVD** $89.95

After Denim Dog, General Rule, and other experts wrap up the subjects of continuity and discontinuity, this program introduces the derivative. Practical examples of derivatives are provided, along with insights into the concepts of tangent lines and slopes. The Derivative Definition is explained as well, reinforced by plenty of sample problems. (31 minutes)

**#10155 Calculus - Derivative Rules and Tangent Lines (Run time 24 min.) DVD** $89.95

What does an unemployed hardware salesman know about calculus? The answer to that and other questions can be found in this program, which features rugged tools for reducing the complexity of working with derivatives, including the Power Rule, e Rule, Natural Logarithm Rule, Product Rule, and Quotient Rule. Finding the equations of tangent lines and the Point-Slope Formula complete the program. (24 minutes)

**#10156 Calculus - Higher Derivatives and the Chain Rule (Run time 21 min.) DVD** $89.95

What do you get when you calculate the derivative of a derivative of a derivative? After taking the headaches out of understanding higher-order derivatives, this program zooms in on the Chain Rule, used alone and in combination with the Power Rule. Examples of the Chain Rule, including its application to a series of gears, reinforce the understanding of this key concept. (21 minutes)

**#10157 Calculus - Curve Sketching (Run time 23 min.) DVD** $89.95

How does art figure into calculus? This program illustrates applications of the derivative through graphing. Ably assisted by the Voice of Common Sense, elements such as critical points, points of inflection, extreme values, increasing and decreasing curves, and concavity are all plotted out, with abundant sample problems. (23 minutes)

**#10158 Calculus - Extrema and Max/Min Word Problems (Run time 34 min.) DVD** $89.95

Behind every calculus problem, neatly packaged and ready to solve, is a word problem. But before coming to terms with word problems, this program examines local extrema and local maximums and minimums. Next, the first- and second-derivative tests for local extrema are studied. Finally, max/min word problems-like how to make packaging for Uncle Skippy's Premium Edible Dirt-are addressed, and the five-step process for solving them is applied. (34 minutes)

**#10159 Calculus - Position, Velocity, and an Introduction to Antiderivatives (Run time 24 min.) DVD** $89.95

Is it true that there is an infinite number of antiderivatives for every derivative? Before answering that question, this program concentrates on three interrelated functions: position, velocity, and acceleration. Then, the mysterious nature of the general antiderivative is laid bare, revealing the indefinite integral-another name for the same thing. (24 minutes)

**#10160 Calculus - Integration Techniques (Run time 21 min.) DVD** $89.95

Is the opposite of integration disintegration? This program deftly dissolves any such misconceptions as it presents the four keys to successful integration: the Integration Formula for a Constant, the Power Rule, the Natural Logarithms Rule, and the Exponential Rule. When to use each-and in what order-is carefully considered. How to apply substitution is examined as well. (21 minutes)

**#10161 Calculus - Definite Integrals and Riemann Sums (Run time 34 min.) DVD** $89.95

How do definite and indefinite integrals differ? What do Riemann sums add up? And how far will "Cowpoke" chase his dream? This program tells all, beginning with a thorough examination of definite integrals and Riemann sums. Then, the piece de resistance-the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus-is unveiled. A study of the area between two curves and the area between a curve and the x-axis rounds out the program. (34 minutes)

**#5532 History of Math - Mathematics and Nature (Run time 23 min.) DVD** $89.95

The shapes of natural things-trees and clouds, blades of grass and galaxies-seem countless. Closer observation shows that nature only presents a small number of fundamental shapes and that these basic shapes obey strict laws. This program explains a new science of natural forms that aims to understand the order of nature. We see that most natural phenomena, whether the movement of planets or the secretion of hormones, follow regular cycles. Attempts to describe the order of nature mathematically have led to a new geometry: fractal geometry. (23 minutes)

**#5608 History of Math - Mathematics (Run time 23 min.) DVD** $89.95

Mathematics emerged in history around the same time as agriculture, and for the very practical reason that it was necessary to quantify crops and to count the days to determine planting and harvesting times. Since then, the need for mathematics and the range of its applications have grown enormously. This program looks at some of the theories and their applications: the probability theory, which enables us to calculate our chances of success in risky situations; and Euclidean geometry, which allows us to understand the relations between shapes and forms of objects, with countless applications in today's world. A more recent advance is the theory of chaos, which addresses complex phenomena in nature, from the human heartbeat to the flow of a stream of water. (23 minutes)

**#35711 History of Math - The Story of 1: How a Single Digit Created Math and Changed the World (Run time 60 min.) DVD** $89.95

The humble digit 1 has in actuality been the prime mover in creating the entire concept of mathematics-and a surprisingly large force in the shaping of world history. This very clever video hosted by the irrepressible Terry Jones of Monty Python fame tells the entire story of 1 and how, with 0, it has come to dominate society through digital technology. Landmark developments-addition and subtraction in Sumer, measurement in Egypt, geometry in Greece, Roman numerals in Rome, "Arabic" numbers in India, and more-are spotlighted. In addition, pivotal figures including Pythagoras, Archimedes, al-Khuwarizmi, Fibonacci, and Leibniz are introduced. Recommended for grades 6-18. (60 minutes)

**#36233 History of Math - Math Can Take You Places (Run time min.) DVD** $89.95

With American schools struggling to boost mathematics scores, math teachers need all the guidance they can get. This bilingual program contains a powerful tool-chest full of lesson demonstrations, professional development videos, and an interactive quiz-all designed to help educators develop real-world teaching examples and applications. Five segments feature a high-energy middle-school teacher in action, leading students through measurement, equivalency, domain/range/reasonableness, problem-solving, and patterns. Five additional segments focus on professional development, presenting tips from experienced teachers on honing algebraic thinking, incorporating video and the Internet, implementing manipulative learning tools, and showing how math is used in everyday life. English or Spanish soundtrack, DVD only. A viewable/printable instructor's guide-containing lesson plans, classroom activities, a helpful Web link, and more-is available online. (50 minutes)

**#6138 Statistics - Handling Variability (Run time 25 min.) DVD** $89.95

This program examines the measurement of blood pressure to introduce the idea that multiple measurements may produce very variable results. The idea that measurement "errors," together with fluctuations in the parameters being measured, create variability is followed by an explanation of both Systematic and Random Error and the recognition of the need for statistical techniques to handle this variability in order to allow inferences to be drawn and decisions made. (25 minutes)

**#6139 Statistics - Describing Data (Run time 25 min.) DVD** $89.95

Beginning with an explanation of the difference between "qualitative" and "quantitative" data, this program goes on to explain various ways of presenting data, including Dot Plots, Bar Charts, and Histograms. The program also explains Summary Measures, Characteristic Values, and how to arrive at the Mode, Median, and Mean, with a discussion of their individual drawbacks and advantages. The program goes on to discuss handling the Spread of Distribution, and explains techniques for measuring Spread, including Quartiles, Inter-quartile Range, and Standard Deviation, and concludes with modeling using Normal Distribution. (25 minutes)

**#6140 Statistics - Using Samples (Run time 20 min.) DVD** $89.95

This program begins with an explanation of the difference between a Population and a Sample, and the reasons why samples are so important in estimating data relating to populations too large or too impractical to be measured in their entirety. The program emphasizes the need for random samples, explains how several random samples of the same size will vary, and then looks at ways of dealing with this variability, calculating the Standard Error of the Mean, and how to estimate the "95% Confidence Interval." The program goes on to show how, when dealing with quantitative data, you can calculate the size of the sample that is needed in order to achieve the precision required. (20 minutes)

**#6141 Statistics - Bivariate Data: When y Depends on x (Run time 20 min.) DVD** $89.95

This program demonstrates how "qualitative" bivariate data can be visualized by using a modification of the simple Bar Chart. Quantitative data is dealt with by developing the Dot Plot into the Scatter Diagram, which allows any correlation to show itself in a linear relation. The program explains how this correlation can be modeled by calculating a "Line of Best Fit," how to calculate 95% Confidence Bands, and how to calculate a summary measure for any correlation called the Correlation Coefficient. Finally, the program explains how to deal with data that indicates a curved Line of Best Fit by either finding a way of re-plotting to provide a linear correlation or, alternatively, how to calculate a curved Line of Best Fit. (20 minutes)

**#4976 Fractals - Fractals: The Colors of Infinity (Run time 52 min.) DVD** $149.95

The Mandelbrot set-someone has called it the thumbprint of God-is one of the most beautiful and remarkable discoveries in the entire history of mathematics. With Arthur C. Clarke as narrator and interviews with a number of notable mathematicians, including Benoit Mandelbrot, this program graphically illustrates how simple formulas can lead to complicated results: it explains the set, what it means, its internal consistency, and the revolutions in thought resulting from its discovery. Asked if the real universe goes on forever, Stephen Hawking defines its limit of smallness; the Mandelbrot set, on the other hand, may go on forever. (52 minutes)

**#5434 Fractals - The Alphabet of Shapes: Benoit Mandelbrot and Fractal Geometry (Run time 35 min.) DVD** $149.95

In this program, Benoit Mandelbrot takes us on a chaotic "guided tour" through Paris and a number of U.S. locations. He explains his ideas and theories by using ordinary objects and occurrences as examples, inviting viewers to look more closely at the universe of irregular and incomplete shapes that surround us-a universe that, at first glance, seems unstructured and chaotic but, with a little guidance, reveals an order all its own. Mandelbrot, through his lucid narrative, possesses the rare gift of making complex issues simple and comprehensible; like many geniuses, he finds what he has discovered obvious, and his talent as a teacher lets us join in discovering the obviousness of fractal geometry. (35 minutes)

**#7276 Fractals - Fractals: An Animated Discussion (Run time 63 min.) DVD** $149.95

Dazzling computer animation combined with the genius of Benoit Mandelbrot and Edward Lorenz present a captivating discussion of fractals and the fundamental concepts of fractal geometry-self-similarity and chaos. Mandelbrot uses a simple head of broccoli to demonstrate the complexity of fractals. Narrating over the three-dimensional animations, Mandelbrot discusses how fractals serve as an excellent model of irregular natural forms, such as coastlines, and how they relieve the scientist of the necessity of describing nature with simple geometric forms-clouds are not spheres, mountains are not cones. The world of fractals is revealed, from the depths of the Mandelbrot set, to the Lorenz attractor. (63 minutes)

**#10117 History of Math - Is God a Number? Maths that Mimic the Mind (Run time 53 min.) DVD** $149.95

If mathematics underpins the elegant precision of the macroscopic and microscopic worlds, is there a Master Mathematician as well? This fascinating program examines the computational paradigms being used to model human consciousness and to quantify reality, from Euclidean geometry to fractal transform algorithms. Oxford mathematician Sir Roger Penrose, quantum physicist Reverend John Polkinghorne, compression technology expert Michael Barnsley, and physiologist Horace Barlow seek to understand how the brain functions-and grope for evidence of a guiding force. Outstanding computer graphics enhance this exploration of inner and outer space. (53 minutes)

**#10915 History of Math - Clouds Are Not Spheres: The Fractal Theory of Benoit Mandelbrot (Run time 57 min.) DVD** $149.95

Both elegant and sublime, fractal geometry has taught mathematicians and scientists to see things differently while quantifying a new level of order in the natural world. In this captivating program, visionary mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot tells his life story as it relates to his spatial approach to problem solving and his scientific achievements. Supported by the insights of Nobel Laureate Ivar Giaever and others, the documentary unifies the disparate periods of Mandelbrot's life around the recurring concept of iteration. "Until fractal geometry became organized, my life had followed a fractal orbit," quips Dr. Mandelbrot. (57 minutes)

**#31019 History of Math - The Math Life (Run time 51 min.) DVD** $149.95

Why did a magician become a mathematician? How can a person see in four dimensions? What does a mathematical proof have in common with a Picasso portrait? This elegant program brings to life the human dimension of mathematics through lively interviews with Freeman Dyson, David Mumford, Ingrid Daubechies, Persi Diaconis, Michael Freedman, Fan Chung Graham, Kate Okikiolu, Jennifer Tour Chayes, Peter Sarnak, Steven Strogatz, and seven other mathematicians. These captivating luminaries vividly communicate the excitement and wonder that fuel their work as they explore the world through its patterns, shapes, motions, and probabilities. Computer animations and analogies drawn from the visual arts are incorporated, to maximize accessibility to the fascinating concepts discussed. A Wendy Conquest/Bob Drake/Dan Rockmore Production. (51 minutes)

**#33537 History of Math - Mathematics and Computers (Run time 52 min.) DVD** $149.95

Divided into five short segments for easy inclusion in lectures, this engaging and accessible program uses computer-rendered models to illustrate five essential topics in mathematics. These include how the Golden Ratio is calculated and has been applied to architecture, art, and design; the ratio of similitude and how it relates to the Pythagorean Theorem and fractals; defining pi using cylinders, regular polygons, the area of a circle, and the weight of geometric cutouts; Hippocratic crescents; and cylindrical and conic sections. An excellent tool for bringing a strong visual element into the teaching of algebra and geometry. (52 minutes)

**#25378 Applied Math - Math in Technology (Run time min.) DVD** $279.8

"But why do I need math?" Now, using this series, give students a clear, definitive, and logical answer. Math is necessary to get the job done in most technical fields, including auto mechanics, electricity/electronics, and the building trades. Each video shows real-life problem situations solved by using practical math and actual computations on the screen. Use Introduction to Math in Technology as an overview and then progress to specific topics. At last...a program to help your students succeed in the world of technical math. A Meridian Production.

**#5048 History of Math - Mathematics (Run time min.) DVD** $319.6

8-part series.

**#6137 Statistics - Why Use Statistics? (Run time min.) DVD** $359.8

Explains the Importance of Statistics to Science StudentsThis series was produced specifically to highlight the relevance of statistics and to teach students the basic statistical methods. The programs use sequences of "live action" video to illustrate relevant situations across a broad range of subject areas, and dynamic animation is used to explain the theoretical principles of statistical methods and to clarify the processes involved. 4-part series, 20-25 minutes each.

**#11784 History of Math - Geometry: The Standard Deviants(r) Core Curriculum (Run time min.) DVD** $499.95

This lively ten-part set, adapted from the popular series developed for students to enhance their test-taking skills, takes geometry to a different plane, combining serious academic content with a humorous presentation style to help make the subject more accessible. Each program skillfully employs elements such as clever mnemonics, high-tech computer graphics, and entertaining vignettes to boost retention and confidence while driving home core concepts through concise explanations and challenging problems. Modules include: • Geometry Basics • Angles • Parallel Lines and Angles • Introduction to Triangles • Using Congruent Triangles and Isosceles and Right Triangle Theorems • Quadrilaterals and Other Polygons • Similar Triangles • Right Triangles and the Pythagorean Theorem • Units, Perimeter, Circumference, and Area • Surface Area and Volume Joining the Standard Deviants Academic Team in the creation of this set are Flavia Colonna, Ph.D., of George Mason University, and Rebecca Berg, Ph.D., of Bowie State University. Correlates to all applicable state and national standards.

**#10223 History of Math - Geometry: The Standard Deviants(r) Core Curriculum (Run time min.) DVD** $599.5

This lively ten-part series, adapted from the popular series developed for students to enhance their test-taking skills, takes geometry to a different plane, combining serious academic content with a humorous presentation style to help make the subject more accessible. Each program skillfully employs elements such as clever mnemonics, high-tech computer graphics, and entertaining vignettes to boost retention and confidence while driving home core concepts through concise explanations and challenging problems. Joining the Standard Deviants Academic Team in the creation of this series are Flavia Colonna, Ph.D., of George Mason University, and Rebecca Berg, Ph.D., of Bowie State University. Correlates to all applicable state and national standards. 10-part series, 12-22 minutes each.

**#11786 Statistics - Statistics: The Standard Deviants( Core Curriculum (Run time min.) DVD** $599.95

This analytical ten-part series, adapted from the popular series developed for students to enhance their test-taking skills, combines serious academic content with a humorous presentation style to help make the subject of statistics more accessible. Each program skillfully employs elements such as clever mnemonics, high-tech computer graphics, and entertaining vignettes to boost retention and confidence while driving home core concepts through concise explanations and engaging examples. Joining the Standard Deviants Academic Team in the creation of this series are Ron Witzel, D.Sc., of George Washington University, and Barry Skolnik, M.S., of Pace University. Also available on three DVDs! When played on any DVD player, these discs: • Provide menu-driven direct access to specific segments • Make customizing the program for classroom use much easier • Offer superior video and sound quality and durability vs. traditional video DVDs can be viewed on a TV or on a computer monitor.

**#10252 Statistics - Statistics: The Standard Deviants(r) Core Curriculum (Run time min.) DVD** $699.5

This analytical ten-part series, adapted from the popular series developed for students to enhance their test-taking skills, combines serious academic content with a humorous presentation style to help make the subject of statistics more accessible. Each program skillfully employs elements such as clever mnemonics, high-tech computer graphics, and entertaining vignettes to boost retention and confidence while driving home core concepts through concise explanations and engaging examples. Joining the Standard Deviants Academic Team in the creation of this series are Ron Witzel, D.Sc., of George Washington University, and Barry Skolnik, M.S., of Pace University. 10-part series, 17-37 minutes each.

**#32891 History of Math - Mathemedia (Run time min.) DVD** $719.4

Mathemedia is a comprehensive pre-algebra curriculum consisting of twelve programs focusing on key mathematical principles that apply to real-life situations. Difficult concepts are illustrated by dramatic segments in which characters use math to solve common problems. Animated computer graphics help students visualize the problems and solutions.Mathemedia was developed to meet the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics, and materials correlate to the U.S. Department of Labor's Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills report.

**#11788 Calculus - Calculus: The Standard Deviants( Core Curriculum (Run time min.) DVD** $799.95

This engaging ten-part series, adapted from the popular series developed for students to enhance their test-taking skills, combines serious academic content with a humorous presentation style to help make calculus more accessible. Each program skillfully employs elements such as clever mnemonics, high-tech computer graphics, and entertaining vignettes to boost retention and confidence while driving home core concepts through concise explanations and challenging problems. Joining the Standard Deviants Academic Team in the creation of this series are Jim Sandefur, Ph.D., and E. Ray Bobo, Ph.D., both of Georgetown University. Also available on three DVDs! When played on any DVD player, these discs: • Provide menu-driven direct access to specific segments • Make customizing the program for classroom use much easier • Offer superior video and sound quality and durability vs. traditional video DVDs can be viewed on a TV or on a computer monitor.

**#35845 History of Math - Mathematics Core Curriculum Video Library (Run time min.) DVD** $835

Theoretical and applied math, math in nature, logic, and background on life as a mathematician are all examined in this 20-program educational video collection. Recommended for grades 8-12. Correlates to state and national standards. Twenty full-length videos. (c) 2006.

**#10151 Calculus - Calculus: The Standard Deviants(r) Core Curriculum (Run time min.) DVD** $899.5

This engaging ten-part series, adapted from the popular series developed for students to enhance their test-taking skills, combines serious academic content with a humorous presentation style to help make calculus more accessible. Each program skillfully employs elements such as clever mnemonics, high-tech computer graphics, and entertaining vignettes to boost retention and confidence while driving home core concepts through concise explanations and challenging problems. Joining the Standard Deviants Academic Team in the creation of this series are Jim Sandefur, Ph.D., and E. Ray Bobo, Ph.D., both of Georgetown University. 10-part series, 21-34 minutes each.